地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (11): 2332-2345.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202011005

• 气候与环境演变 • 上一篇    下一篇

历史上冀中平原“塘泺”湖泊群的分布与水系结构

邓辉(), 卜凡   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院历史地理研究所,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-08 修回日期:2020-07-10 出版日期:2020-11-25 发布日期:2021-01-25
  • 作者简介:邓辉(1964-), 男, 四川成都人, 教授, 博导, 主要从事区域与城市历史地理研究。E-mail: denghui@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41230634)

Spatial distribution of the Tang Po Lakes upon the Central Hebei Plain during the Northern Song Dynasty

DENG Hui(), BU Fan   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2019-10-08 Revised:2020-07-10 Online:2020-11-25 Published:2021-01-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41230634)

摘要:

“塘泺”是北宋时期分布在冀中平原中部的巨大湖泊群,由大小数十个湖泊组成,东西绵延260 km,今天的白洋淀、文安洼、东淀、团泊洼、北大港,均属于“塘泺”的残余。本文在实地考察的基础上,综合集成历史文献记载、大比例尺地形图、ETM遥感数据、DEM数据、土壤调查数据、古地图数据,系统复原了北宋“塘泺”的空间分布范围与内部水系结构。研究表明,北宋“塘泺”的自然地理基础是分布在冀中凹陷带上以白洋淀、文安洼、团泊洼为代表的三大洼地,以及分布在这些洼地内的天然湖泊和河流。北宋朝廷出于军事防御目的,利用这些洼地和湖泊,开挖渠道,修筑堤坝,开辟水口,导引水源,调控水位,把位于今大清河以南的各条河流几乎全部导入了各区湖泊,把原有湖泊的水面尽量扩大,并将其串联成为相互连通的湖泊水面,从而形成了历史上冀中平原上最大的湖泊系统。

关键词: 冀中平原, 北宋塘泺, 空间格局, 河湖水系, 演变过程

Abstract:

The Tang Po Lakes, consisting of a great number of small lakes and swamps, which had widely spread upon the Central Hebei Plain during the Northern Song Dynasty, was an awesome geographical landscape in North China in history. It has a significant meaning for understanding the regional environmental change in the North China Plain. The researchers employed an interdisciplinary procedure to unveil the spatial pattern and changing process of the Tang Po system in history. Based on GIS, this paper integrated the traditional historical geographic method, which mainly focused on the scrutiny of all sorts of historical records, with analysis of modern soil survey, archaeological survey, remote sensing images, and the references in the published research. In this way the spatial distribution of Tang Po Lakes on the Central Hebei Plain during the Northern Song Dynasty has been carefully examined and scientifically reconstructed for the first time. The paper showed that the Northern Song government constructed the Tang Po system at the end of the 10th century by fully taking advantage of local natural lakes and swamps originally located in the depression zone of the Central Hebei Plain which adjoined to its northern border, in order to prevent the invasion from the Liao Dynasty in north. In the mid-11th century, the Tang Po system reached its maximum extent, which spanned more than 260 kilometers from the eastern coast to the western mountain foot. The Tang Po system, which was composed of many small lakes, swamps, pits, diches, and even rice paddies, could be divided into nine sub-regions, and watered by the Tanghe River, the Shahe River, the Shenshui River, the Yishui River, the Hutuo River, and the Yuhe River. The whole Tang Po system was deliberately connected and maintained by the complex artificial facilities, such as dams, embankments, reservoirs, sluice gates, and channels. In the early 12th century the Northern Song Dynasty was in decline, the Tang Po system collapsed and was broken into three separate parts which had existed till the late Qing Dynasty. The Tang Po system of the Northern Song Dynasty has ever been the biggest man-made lake system in Chinese history, which had a magnificent impact on the regional water system and local environment of the Central Hebei Plain.

Key words: Central Hebei Plain, Tang Po system, spatial distribution, lake-river system, changing process