地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (11): 2319-2331.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202011004

• 气候与环境演变 • 上一篇    下一篇

大兴安岭多年冻土区森林土壤温室气体通量

吴祥文(), 臧淑英(), 马大龙, 任建华, 李昊, 赵光影   

  1. 哈尔滨师范大学寒区地理环境监测与空间信息服务黑龙江省重点实验室,哈尔滨 150025
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-16 修回日期:2020-09-04 出版日期:2020-11-25 发布日期:2021-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 臧淑英
  • 作者简介:吴祥文(1991-), 男, 江苏连云港人, 博士生, 主要从事寒区冻土与气候变化研究。E-mail: hsdwxw@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41971151);国家自然科学基金项目(41501065);国家自然科学基金项目(41601382);黑龙江省自然科学基金项目(TD2019D002);哈尔滨师范大学博士研究生创新基金项目(HSDBSCX2019-02)

Greenhouse gas fluxes from forest soil in permafrost regions of Greater Hinggan Mountains, Northeast China

WU Xiangwen(), ZANG Shuying(), MA Dalong, REN Jianhua, LI Hao, ZHAO Guangying   

  1. Heilongjiang Province Key Laboratory of Geographical Environment Monitoring and Spatial Information Service in Cold Regions, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025, China
  • Received:2019-01-16 Revised:2020-09-04 Online:2020-11-25 Published:2021-01-25
  • Contact: ZANG Shuying
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971151);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41501065);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41601382);Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province(TD2019D002);Doctoral Innovation Foundation of Harbin Normal University(HSDBSCX2019-02)

摘要:

多年冻土温室气体排放对全球气候变化有重要影响。采用静态暗箱—气相色谱法,于2016—2017年生长季(5—9月),对大兴安岭多年冻土区兴安落叶松林、樟子松林和白桦林土壤二氧化碳(CO2)、甲烷(CH4)和氧化亚氮(N2O)通量进行野外原位观测,对比分析温室气体通量的动态变化特征及其关键影响因子。结果表明:3种林型土壤CO2通量范围为65.88~883.59 mg·m-2·h-1;CH4通量范围为-93.29~-2.82 μg·m-2·h-1;N2O通量范围为-5.31~45.22 μg·m-2·h-1。整个生长季兴安落叶松林、樟子松林和白桦林土壤均表现为CO2、N2O的排放源、CH4的吸收汇,土壤CO2和CH4通量在不同林型和年际间差异显著。3种林型土壤CO2通量与5 cm、10 cm和15 cm土壤温度呈极显著正相关(P < 0.01);CH4通量受土壤含水量和10 cm、15 cm土壤温度的影响较大(P < 0.05);兴安落叶松林和樟子松林土壤N2O通量与气温呈显著正相关(P < 0.05),而白桦林土壤N2O则与15 cm土壤温度呈显著负相关(P < 0.05)。基于100 a时间尺度计算温室气体全球综合增温潜势,3种林型土壤温室气体的排放对气候变暖具有正反馈作用。

关键词: 温室气体, 多年冻土, 森林土壤, 全球增温潜势, 大兴安岭

Abstract:

Greenhouse gases from permafrost have a significant impact on global climate change. The in situ static dark chamber and gas chromatography techniques were used to monitor the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous dioxide (N2O) from the typical forest soils of Larix gmelini, Pinus sylvestris, and Betula platyphylla in the permafrost regions of the Greater Hinggan Mountains. The experiment was conducted during the growing season (May to September) of 2016 and 2017. The dynamic characteristics of greenhouse gas fluxes and the controlling factors were comparatively analyzed. The results showed that soil CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes of the three forest types were 65.88-883.59 mg·m-2·h-1, -93.29--2.82 μg·m-2·h-1, and -5.31-45.22 μg·m-2·h-1, respectively. The soils from the three typical forests were all sources for CO2 and N2O, and sink for CH4 during the entire observation period. Soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes changed significantly among different forest types and between the two observation periods. The soil CO2 fluxes of the three forest types were mainly controlled by soil temperature and were found to have a significantly positive correlation with the soil temperature at 5, 10, and 15 cm (P < 0.01). The soil CH4 fluxes were affected by soil water content and soil temperature. The correlations were significant in the soils at 10 and 15 cm (P < 0.05). Moreover, the air temperature controlled and regulated soil N2O fluxes. The soil N2O fluxes in the Betula platyphylla forest showed a significantly negative correlation with the soil temperature at 15 cm (P < 0.05). The emission rate of soil CO2 and N2O accelerated with increasing temperature, while the absorption rate of CH4 decreased, enhancing the atmospheric greenhouse effect. The global warming potential of greenhouse gases was calculated based on the 100-year time scale, where the soil greenhouse gases of the three forest types exhibited a positive feedback on climate warming.

Key words: greenhouse gas, permafrost, forest soils, global warming potential, Greater Hinggan Mountains