地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (11): 2298-2306.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202011002

• 气候与环境演变 • 上一篇    下一篇

秦巴山区马尾松林和油松林的空间分布及亚热带与暖温带界线划分

姚永慧1(), 寇志翔1,2, 胡宇凡1,2, 张百平1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-04-08 修回日期:2020-02-18 出版日期:2020-11-25 发布日期:2021-01-25
  • 作者简介:姚永慧(1975-), 女, 湖北安陆人, 博士, 副研究员, 研究方向为地理时空数据分析。E-mail: yaoyh@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41871350);科技基础资源调查项目(2017FY100900)

Spatial distribution patterns of Pinus tabulaeformis forest and Pinus massoniana forest in Qinling-Daba Mountains and the boundary of subtropical and warm temperate zones

YAO Yonghui1(), KOU Zhixiang1,2, HU Yufan1,2, ZHANG Baiping1   

  1. 1. State key Laboratory of Resources and Environment Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2019-04-08 Revised:2020-02-18 Published:2020-11-25 Online:2021-01-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41871350);Scientific and Technological Basic Resources Survey Project(2017FY100900)

摘要:

秦岭不仅是中国南北的地理分界线,也是中国亚热带和暖温带的气候分界线,在中国地理生态格局中占有重要的地位和作用。由于过渡带的复杂性、过渡性和异质性以及划分指标、研究目的的不同,学术界关于这一南北地理—生态分界线的具体位置一直有争论。为了进一步揭示秦巴山区过渡带的特征,明确中国南北地理—生态分界线的位置,本文选择马尾松(Pinus massoniana)林和油松(Pinus tabulaeformis)林这两类分别代表中国南方亚热带针叶林和北方温带针叶林的植被,结合研究区SRTM地形数据、气温和降水数据等,以年降水、最冷月(1月)气温、最热月(7月)气温和年均温为气候指标,详细分析了这两类植被在秦巴山区的空间分布及二者分界线处的气候条件。结果表明:① 马尾松林和油松林的分界线及相应位置的气候指标可以作为亚热带与暖温带界线划分的植被—气候指标之一。秦巴山区亚热带针叶林(马尾松林)与温带针叶林(油松林)的分界线位于伏牛山南坡至汉中盆地北缘一线(秦岭南坡)海拔1000~1200 m处;分界线处气候指标稳定:年降水750~1000 mm,年均温12~14 ℃,最冷月气温0~4 ℃,最热月气温22~26 ℃。② 通过综合的植被—气候指标来划分秦巴山区亚热带和暖温带的界线,能更科学地确定气候带分界线的位置及过渡带的特征,更全面地反映地表植被—气候格局的变化。此外,秦巴山区亚热带与暖温带的界线应该是由亚热带与暖温带针叶林分界线、阔叶林分界线、灌丛分界线等组成的一个过渡带。本文的研究结果为亚热带与暖温带划分指标的选取提供了一定的科学依据。

关键词: 秦巴山地, 南北过渡带, 马尾松林, 油松林, 气候, 亚热带, 暖温带

Abstract:

Qinling Mountains is not only the geographical boundary between North and South China, but also the boundary between subtropical and warm temperate zones. It plays an important role in the geo-ecological pattern of China. However, there is controversy about the specific location of this geographical boundary in academic community due to the complexity, transition and heterogeneity of the transitional zone, as well as the differences in the delimitation indicators and research purposes. To further reveal the characteristics of the North-South transitional zone and clarify the specific location of the geo-ecological boundary between North and South China, combined with SRTM topographic data, temperature and precipitation data, Pinus massoniana forest and Pinus tabulaeformis forest, which represent subtropical coniferous forests in South China and temperate coniferous forest in North China respectively, were chosen to analyze their spatial distributions in the Qinling-Daba Mountains and the climatic conditions at their boundary with the climatic indexes of annual precipitation, the coldest month (January) average temperature, the warmest month (July) average temperature and the annual average temperatures. The results show that: (1) Pinus massoniana and Pinus tabulaeformis forests and the climate indicators of their boundary can be used as one of the vegetation-climate indicators for the delimitation of subtropical and warm temperate zones. The boundary between the subtropical coniferous forest (Pinus massoniana forest) and temperate coniferous forest (Pinus tabulaeformis forest) in Qinling-Daba Mountains is located along the south slope of Funiu Mountain to the north edge of Hanzhong Basin (the south slope of Qinling Mountains) at an altitude of 1000-1200 m, where the climatic indictors are stable: the annual precipitation is about 750-1000 mm; the annual average temperature is about 12-14 ℃; the coldest monthly average temperature is 0-4 ℃; and the warmest monthly average temperature is about 22-26 ℃. (2) It could be more scientifically to delimitate the boundary of subtropical and warm temperate zones in China by comprehensively considering the vegetation-climate indicators. Additionally, the boundary between subtropical and warm temperate zones in Qinling-Daba Mountains should be a transitional zone consisting of the boundaries of coniferous forests, broad-leaved forests and shrubs between subtropical and warm temperate zones. The results provide a scientific basis for the selection of delimitation indicators of subtropical and warm temperate zones.

Key words: Qinling-Daba Mountains, North-South transitional zone, Pinus tabulaeformis forest, Pinus massoniana forest, climate, subtropical zone, warm temperate zone