地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (10): 2256-2268.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202010015

• 文化与健康地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

身体地理学视角下非物质文化遗产的传承与实践

陶伟1,2(), 蔡浩辉1, 高雨欣3, 张楚婧4, 江映珍1   

  1. 1.华南师范大学地理科学学院,广州 510631
    2.华南师范大学粤港澳村镇可持续发展研究中心,广州 510631
    3.伦敦大学学院巴特莱特建筑学院,伦敦 WC1E 6BT
    4.北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院,深圳 518055
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-07 修回日期:2020-06-30 出版日期:2020-10-25 发布日期:2020-12-25
  • 作者简介:陶伟(1971-), 女, 河南平顶山人, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师, 研究方向为城市形态理论与方法、社会文化地理学、乡村地理学、城市旅游与遗产保护研究。E-mail: muyang426@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金基金重大项目(18ZDA161)

The transmission and practice of intangible cultural heritage in the perspective of geographies of the body

TAO Wei1,2(), CAI Haohui1, GAO Yuxin3, ZHANG Chujing4, JIANG Yingzhen1   

  1. 1. School of Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    2. Center for Sustainable Development of Village and Town in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    3. The Bartlett, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    4. School of Urban Planning and Design, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, China
  • Received:2019-05-07 Revised:2020-06-30 Published:2020-10-25 Online:2020-12-25
  • Supported by:
    Major Program of National Social Science Foundation of China(18ZDA161)

摘要:

以人为本体、主体、载体、活体的非物质文化遗产实际上是一种“身体遗产”,身体在非物质文化遗产的形塑中发挥着根基性作用。本文选取展演型非物质文化遗产项目——广州沙涌村鳌鱼舞及其传承人为研究对象,引入身体地理学的理论分析视角,对非物质文化遗产传承人训练与展演的时空过程进行历时性考察,剖析传承人身体技术的形成过程和展演时空中的具身体验,探讨传承人在此过程中身体与感情相互影响的机制。研究发现:① 在训练时空中,传承人利用身体知识衍生出的权力关系主导了特定空间中的规训关系,不同级别的传承人具有不同的知识权力,一定的规训关系由此形成。青少年传承人与成年传承人间的情绪体验均受到规训关系和自身生物特性等多重因素的影响。地方特定的社会文化是规训关系顺利运作的主要原因。② 在展演时空中,身体是传承人多感官体验的核心。传承人通过身体感知特定的展演环境,基于“凝视”与“被凝视”的视觉关系,辅以声音的节奏韵律,与观众建立起了有效的感情交流途径,从而达到主体和客体间的有效互动。传承人的身体是非物质文化遗产得以成功传承和顺利展演的前提与保证,承载了丰厚的地方历史文化,在多主体和多层次的复杂时空网络中占据着中心地位。

关键词: 身体, 具身, 非物质文化遗产, 传承人, 鳌鱼舞

Abstract:

Intangible cultural heritage is essentially the "embodied heritage" according to the fact that the human body is the subject and carrier of intangible heritage with the power of structuring and performing heritage. This article selects Shachong Aoyu Dance, an intangible cultural heritage in Guangzhou and its transmitters as the study case and research subject respectively. Based on the perspective of geographies of the body, a diachronic investigation on both the transmitters' training and performance was conducted to explore how their body techniques formed in the process of training and to interpret how they experience a performing process. In the space-time of training, transmitters who has higher proficiency of Aoyu Dance lead the relationship between old and new transmitters. The senior transmitters obtain a particular power in this space due to their professional body techniques. This relationship is formed based on hierarchical domination and discipline. The affectual flow between senior and junior transmitters is significantly impacted by their interactions, and it is also influenced by their biological characteristics. The junior transmitters, however, can overcome the negative impacts of the disciplinary relationship and the biological resistances of their bodies. Therefore, the junior transmitters can actively engage in the emotional and affectual interaction between the old transmitters, their own bodies and themselves. The social and cultural relation in the local village is the main force forming the politics of relationship during the training process. In the space-time of performance, the body is the core of transmitters' multisensory experience. The transmitters firstly perceive their surroundings in performing, and then establish a visual interaction with the audience through "gazing" and "being gazed". With the supplement of rhythm and sound, the transmitters can successfully connect themselves to the audience with full emotional and affectual circulations and contagions, which helps the transmitters increase the strength of performance and reciprocate these procedures. The bodies of transmitters are thus the premise and guarantee for the inheritance and performance of intangible cultural heritage. The body, carrying the rich local history and culture, occupies a central position in this complex space-time network that is characterized by multi-subject and multi-level.

Key words: body, embody, intangible cultural heritage, transmitters, Aoyu Dance