地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (10): 2029-2046.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202010001

• 理论探索与应用 •    下一篇

现代农业地理工程与农业高质量发展——以黄土丘陵沟壑区为例

刘彦随1,2(), 冯巍仑1, 李裕瑞1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-12 修回日期:2020-06-28 出版日期:2020-10-25 发布日期:2020-12-25
  • 作者简介:刘彦随(1965-), 男, 研究员, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110005331M), 主要从事农业地理学与乡村地理学、土地利用与区域可持续发展研究。E-mail: liuys@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41931293);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0504701)

Modern agricultural geographical engineering and agricultural high-quality development: Case study of loess hilly and gully region

LIU Yansui1,2(), FENG Weilun1, LI Yurui1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-02-12 Revised:2020-06-28 Online:2020-10-25 Published:2020-12-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41931293);National Key Research and Development Program(2017YFC0504701)

摘要:

农业地理学是农业科学与地理科学的交叉学科,农业地理工程是地理学与工程学交叉研究在现代农业与乡村领域的进一步深化和系统应用。随着现代农业科学技术和人地系统科学的创新发展,区域农业基础建设的科技需求日益旺盛,农业地理工程试验成为农业工程技术研发和农田系统管理的重要任务。本文阐述了农业地理工程的科学内涵、试验原理与技术方法,并以黄土丘陵沟壑区为例开展了地理工程试验研究和农业高质量发展对策探讨。结果表明:① 农业地理工程试验主要包括针对特定区域地理环境和农业发展问题的水土配置、土层复配、大田试验、生态防护、地理空间分析与监测,旨在探明区域高标准农田建设、健康农业生态系统营造的水土气生资源要素耦合规律,建立可持续土地利用系统与多功能农业经营模式。② 农业生态系统试验主要包括沟道边坡防护方式、健康农田系统结构、作物与土壤匹配关系、耕地投入产出经济分析,通过开展土地改良、作物优选交互试验和田间试种,揭示新造地“作土关系”耦合机理与优化调控途径。③ 作土关系优化调控是工程试验设计的主要内容,包括气候—作物优选、土体结构改良、地形—作物优选、土壤质量改良、土壤—作物优选、效益—作物优选6个阶段。④ 农业地理工程技术应用的核心任务是深化贯通综合研究、揭示微观耦合机理、建立工程试验范式,其应用路径主要体现在时间维、空间维与逻辑维三个维度。新时期农业地理工程试验与示范应用,有利于丰富农业地理学前沿理论与方法论,对于推进地理工程化研究和服务农业农村高质量发展决策具有重要意义。

关键词: 农业地理学, 现代地理工程, 土地整治工程, 农田系统管理, 高质量发展, 黄土丘陵沟壑区

Abstract:

Agricultural geography is the interdisciplinary subject of agricultural science and geographical science, and agricultural geographical engineering is the further deepening and systematic application of the interdisciplinary research of geography and engineering in the field of modern agriculture and rural revitalization, and it is an important material basis to ensure the agricultural high-quality development. With the innovative development of modern agricultural science and technology and human-earth system science, the scientific and technological needs of regional agricultural infrastructure are increasingly strong, and agricultural geographical engineering experiments have become an important task of agricultural engineering technology research and farmland system management. This article expounds the scientific connotation, experimental principles and technical methods of agricultural geographical engineering, and takes the loess hilly and gully region as an example to carry out the experimental research on geographical engineering and discussed the countermeasures for high-quality agricultural development. Results show that: (1) Agricultural geographical engineering experiments mainly include soil and water allocation, soil layer composition, field experiment, ecological protection, geospatial analysis and monitoring for specific regional geographical environment and agricultural development issues, aiming to explore coupling law of resource elements for regional high-standard farmland construction and healthy agricultural ecosystem construction, and establish a sustainable land use system and multifunctional agricultural management model. (2) Agro-ecosystem experiments mainly includes trench slope protection methods, healthy farmland system structure, crop-soil matching relationship, economic analysis of farmland input and output, which aimed to reveals the coupling mechanism and optimal control approach of "crop-soil relationship" by carrying out interactive experiments and field trials for land improvement and crop optimization. (3) Optimization and regulation of crop-soil relationship is the main content of engineering experiment design, which includes six stages: climate-crop optimization, soil-body structure improvement, terrain-crop optimization, soil quality improvement, soil-crop optimization and benefit-crop optimization. (4) The core tasks of the application of agricultural geoengineering technology are to deepen the comprehensive research, reveal the micro-coupling mechanism and establish the engineering test paradigm, and its application path is mainly reflected in three dimensions of time, space, and logic. The geographical engineering experiment of modern agriculture and its application in the new era are conducive to enriching the frontier theories and methodology of agricultural geography, and are of great significance to the advancement of geographical engineering research and the decision-making of agricultural and rural high-quality development.

Key words: agricultural geography, modern geographical engineering, land consolidation engineering, farmland system management, high-quality development, loess hilly and gully region of China