地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (9): 1948-1965.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202009010

• 土地利用与资源开发 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国西北干旱区土地沙漠化敏感性时空格局

郭泽呈1(), 魏伟1(), 石培基1, 周亮2,3, 王旭峰4, 李振亚1, 庞素菲1, 颉斌斌5   

  1. 1. 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院,兰州 730070
    2. 兰州交通大学测绘与地理信息学院,兰州 730070
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京100101
    4. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院 内陆河流域生态水文重点实验室/甘肃省祁连山生态研究中心,兰州 730000
    5. 兰州城市学院旅游学院,兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-25 修回日期:2020-05-13 出版日期:2020-09-25 发布日期:2020-11-25
  • 作者简介:郭泽呈(1996-), 男, 安徽亳州人, 硕士生, 研究方向为环境遥感与GIS应用。E-mail: 18709424424@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41861040);国家自然科学基金项目(41761047)

Spatiotemporal changes of land desertification sensitivity in the arid region of Northwest China

GUO Zecheng1(), WEI Wei1(), SHI Peiji1, ZHOU Liang2,3, WANG Xufeng4, LI Zhenya1, PANG Sufei1, XIE Binbin5   

  1. 1. College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
    2. Faculty of Geomatics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070, China
    3. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    4. Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology of In-land River Basin/Gansu Qilian Mountains Ecological Research Center, Northwest Institute of Eco-environment and Resources, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
    5. School of Urban Economics and Tourism Culture, Lanzhou City University, Lanzhou 730070, China
  • Received:2019-07-25 Revised:2020-05-13 Published:2020-09-25 Online:2020-11-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41861040);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41761047)

摘要:

土地沙漠化敏感性评估是沙漠化监测的重要内容之一,也是研究如何防止和治理沙漠化的重要课题。本文以中国西北干旱区作为研究区,利用遥感技术和GIS空间分析技术为支撑,通过构建“土壤—地形—水文—气候—植被”沙漠化敏感性综合评价指标体系,并借助空间距离模型计算了沙漠化敏感性指数,进而定量评估2000年、2005年、2010年和2017年西北干旱区土地沙漠化敏感性的时空演变特征,在此基础上引入地理探测器等方法对其主要驱动因素进行了深入分析。研究结果表明:① 地形、土壤、气候、植被和水文等5个方面相互影响,彼此制约,共同构成中国西北干旱区沙漠化敏感性分布和变化的本底条件;② 西北干旱区沙漠化敏感性总体上呈现周边低、内部高的分布特征,低敏感区主要分布在阿尔泰山、天山、昆仑山、阿尔金山和祁连山等地,而高敏感区则主要分布在准噶尔盆地、塔里木盆地和内蒙古高原等大部分地区,包括塔克拉玛干沙漠、巴丹吉林沙漠和腾格里沙漠腹地。沙漠化敏感性的空间分布具有显著的区域性,高敏感区和低敏感区界限分明、分布集中;③ 从时空演变看,2000年以来沙漠化敏感性变化以稳定型占据主导,而整体上敏感性表现为缓慢降低趋势,说明潜在沙漠化区域逐年减少,区域沙漠化治理工作取得了一定成效;④ 西北干旱区的各驱动因素中,土壤及气候起直接作用,是最主要的影响因素,而植被是改变沙漠化敏感性最活跃、最基本的因素。除此之外,地形的分布和水文的变化对沙漠化敏感性起到一定的限制作用,而社会经济因素是影响区域沙漠化敏感性最为快速的因素,且经济发展对促进区域沙漠化敏感性的增长作用有逐渐加强的趋势。从整体来看,中国西北干旱区土地沙漠化得到了有效遏制,沙漠化治理工作取得了积极成效,但在全球气候变化加强和社会经济发展进入新常态的大背景下,中国沙漠化监测评估和治理工作仍然任重而道远。

关键词: 沙漠化敏感性, 时空变化, 地理探测器, GIS, 中国西北干旱区

Abstract:

The sensitivity assessment of land desertification is one of important contents of monitoring, preventing and controlling desertification. This paper took the arid region of Northwest China as the study area. Based on the RS and spatial analysis technology of GIS, we built a comprehensive index system of desertification sensitivity for evaluation on "soil-terrain-hydrology-climate-vegetation". The spatial distance model (SDM) was used to calculate the desertification sensitivity index (DSI). Then, spatiotemporal change of land desertification sensitivity in the study area covering 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2017 was quantitatively assessed. On this basis, the main driving factors were analyzed by using the geographic detector. The results showed that: (1) terrain, soil, climate, vegetation and hydrology affected each other, which were the basic conditions for the distribution and changes of sensitivity to desertification in the study area. (2) On the whole, the desertification sensitivity showed a distribution pattern of low around and high inside. The low sensitivity regions were mainly distributed in the five major mountain ranges (i.e. Altai Mountains, Tianshan Mountains, Kunlun Mountains, Altun Mountains and Qilian Mountains), and Junggar Basin, Tarim Basin and Inner Mongolian Plateau belonged to the high sensitivity regions, including the back-land of Taklamakan Desert, Badain Jaran Desert and Tengger Desert. Besides, the spatial distribution of desertification sensitivity had obvious regionality, and high and low sensitivity regions had clear boundary and concentrated distribution. (3) In terms of spatiotemporal evolution, changes of desertification sensitivity since 2000 was mainly stable type, and the overall sensitivity showed a slow decrease trend, indicating that the potential desertification regions decreased year by year and some achievements had been made in the control of regional desertification. (4) Among the driving factors affecting study area, soil and climate played a direct role, which were the most important influencing factors, and vegetation was the most active and basic factor that changed desertification sensitivity. In addition, topography and hydrology played a role in restricting the changes of desertification sensitivity, while socio-economic factors were affecting the regional desertification sensitivity, and their effects were gradually strengthened. In general, desertification has been effectively controlled in the study area, and positive results have been achieved in desertification control. However, against the backdrop of intensified global climate change and new normal of socio-economic development, the monitoring, assessment and control of desertification in China still have a long way to go.

Key words: desertification sensitivity, spatiotemporal change, geographic detector, GIS, arid region of Northwest China