地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (8): 1725-1741.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202008012

• 交通与文化旅游 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于轨距的亚欧大陆铁路地缘系统格局及形成机理

王成金1,2(), 李绪茂1,2, 陈沛然1,2, 谢永顺1,2, 刘卫东1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-09 修回日期:2020-06-28 出版日期:2020-08-25 发布日期:2020-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 王成金
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导项目(XDA20010101);中国科学院重点部署项目(ZDRW-ZS-2017-4)

Spatial pattern of railway geo-system and development menchanism from the view of gauge: A case study of Eurasia

WANG Chengjin1,2(), LI Xumao1,2, CHEN Peiran1,2, XIE Yongshun1,2, LIU Weidong1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling; Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2019-06-09 Revised:2020-06-28 Online:2020-08-25 Published:2020-10-25
  • Contact: WANG Chengjin
  • Supported by:
    Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA20010101);Key Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(ZDRW-ZS-2017-4)

摘要:

铁路是重要的地理空间要素和基础设施类型,是在运输属性基础上不断拓展而包含社会、国防军事乃至政治内涵的物质要素,对地理系统具有分异和重塑功能。本文界定了铁路地缘系统的概念与基本特征,并以亚欧大陆为研究单元,分析其铁路轨距结构,探讨了其地缘系统分异格局,包括轨距差异、路轨系统、运输组织系统等;考察了亚欧铁路地缘系统的形成机理,重点从技术传播与路径依赖、地缘政治与国防军事、殖民扩张与殖民统治等角度进行揭示;最后,总结了亚欧大陆铁路轨距技术的地缘传播模式。研究发现亚欧大陆形成了复杂的铁路轨距分异格局,但主流轨距是1520 mm、1435 mm和1067 mm,其覆盖里程规模与空间范围、地理区位均形成明显分异,成为铁路地缘系统形成分异、网络形成割裂的物理基础和技术源头。亚欧大陆形成了8个铁路地缘系统,分别割据亚欧大陆的不同地区,覆盖不同数量的国家和空间范围,形成了不同的地缘关系,尤其是产生了“1435空间”和“1520空间”的地缘对抗,并形成了5种铁路轨距传播的地缘模式。

关键词: 轨距, 铁路地缘系统, 发展机理, 传播模式

Abstract:

The railway is an important geospatial element as well as an indispensable feature of a nation's infrastructure. It is a material element of a nation's transport network, and it also has social, national defense, military, and even political attributes. Therefore, it has a profound impact on the geographical system, which intensifies the spatial differentiation and reconstruction of the terrestrial system. This paper defines the conceptual connotation and basic characteristics of the railway ecosystem, and analyses the railway network structure, including its gauge structure and national distribution. Secondly, taking Eurasia as the research area, we explore the geographical differentiation of the Eurasian railway network, including gauge differences, the rail system, and the organization of the transport system. Thirdly, this paper investigates the dynamic mechanisms leading to the formation of the Eurasian railway geo-system, with a particular focus on technology dissemination, path dependence, geopolitics, and national defense. Finally, a geographic model of the track gauges of railways in Eurasia is developed. It is found that a complex pattern of railway gauge differences has been formed in Eurasia. Among the numerous railway regulations, three main types of gauge are identified, including 1520 mm, 1435 mm, and 1067 mm. Considerable variation in the coverage of different track gauges is apparent, which provides a physical and technological basis for railway system differentiation and network fragmentation. We find that eight geo-systems in continents of Europe and Asia are strengthened, which divide the Eurasian continent into discrete regions. These differences that geo-systems extend across different numbers of countries, have led to the formation of distinct geopolitical relationships, with five separate track gauge expansion modes, and a geographical confrontation between the 1435 space and 1520 space track gauge areas.

Key words: railway, gauge, railway geo-system, developing menchanism, expansion mode