地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (8): 1647-1666.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202008007

• 区域与乡村发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国专业村镇空间格局及其影响因素

曹智1(), 刘彦随1,2(), 李裕瑞1, 王永生1   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-26 修回日期:2020-07-24 出版日期:2020-08-25 发布日期:2020-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘彦随
  • 作者简介:曹智(1989-), 男, 山东济南人, 助理研究员, 中国地理学会会员(S110011723M), 研究方向为土地利用与乡村发展。E-mail:caoz.14b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41801175);国家自然科学基金项目(41931293);中国博士后科学基金项目(2019T120128);中国博士后科学基金项目(2018M631558)

Spatial pattern and its influencing factors of specialized villages and towns in China

CAO Zhi1(), LIU Yansui1,2(), LI Yurui1, WANG Yongsheng1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-11-26 Revised:2020-07-24 Online:2020-08-25 Published:2020-10-25
  • Contact: LIU Yansui
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41801175);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41931293);China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(2019T120128);China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(2018M631558)

摘要:

探索专业村镇的地域分异格局特征及其影响因素,对实施农业转型升级与乡村振兴战略具有重要参考价值。本文基于农业农村部“一村一品”示范村镇资料揭示了中国专业村镇的空间格局,运用地理探测器模型从全国和农业区尺度分析了地形特征、资源禀赋和区位条件等村域环境因素,以及市场需求和经济基础等区域环境因素对专业村镇分布的影响。研究发现:① 中国专业村镇主要分布在胡焕庸线东南半壁,占83.64%,呈现中心集聚和由华北平原—长江下游平原向南、再向西北梯度递减特征;② 主导产业细分门类以水果、蔬菜为主,占59.45%,主要分布在黄淮海平原、关中平原、长江中下游平原、四川盆地等,且多以省会城市为中心,呈圈带状分布;③ 专业村镇空间分布受区域环境因素的影响强于村域环境因素,市场需求和经济基础因素的解释力值分别为0.30和0.19,村域环境因素中地形特征因素影响相对较大,其解释力值为0.15;④ 影响因素存在明显的区域差异,北方平原—丘陵区主要受到市场需求因素影响,农牧交错—高原区主要受到地形特征和资源禀赋因素的影响,西北—青藏高原区主要受市场需求、经济基础和区位条件的影响,而南方丘陵—高原区解释力较弱。研究可为提高农业生产专业化水平、识别和培育专业村镇和乡村振兴极、推进乡村振兴战略实施提供科学参考。

关键词: 乡村地域系统, 乡村振兴, 乡村振兴极, 专业村镇, 空间格局, 影响因素

Abstract:

Specialized villages and towns has significance to agricultural transformation & upgrading and rural vitalization strategy. With the data of "One Village One Product" Demonstration Villages and Towns from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People's Republic of China, this paper revealed the spatial pattern of specialized villages and towns in the whole country. It also analyzed village-level factors (i.e. topography, resource, location) and region-level factors (i.e. market and economic foundation) from the national and agricultural regionalization scale using Geodetector model. The results showed that: (1) 83.64% of specialized villages and towns mainly concentrated to the southeast of the "Hu Line", presenting central agglomeration and gradient descent from the North China Plain-the Lower Reaches of Yangtze River Plain to south and then to northwest. (2) The products of specialized villages and towns were mainly fruits and vegetables, accounting for 59.45%. They were distributed mainly in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, Guanzhong Plain, the Middle-lower Reaches of Yangtze River Plain, Sichuan Basin, etc., as well as circle distribution centered on the provincial capitals. (3) The distribution of specialized villages and towns was more influenced by region-level factors than by village-level factors, and the explanatory value of market and economic factors was 0.30 and 0.19, respectively. The influence of topographic factor was more obvious than that of other village-level factors, with the explanatory value being 0.15. (4) These factors presented regional differences. The main factor affecting the distribution of specialized villages and towns was market in the northern plain and hilly region; topographic and resource factors dominated the agro-pastoral ecotone and plateau region; market, economic foundation and location factors had a joint effect in the northwestern and Tibetan Plateau regions. There were no prominent factors in the southern hilly and plateau area. This study has important scientific reference value for improving agriculture's level of specialization, identifying and cultivating specialized villages & towns and rural revitalization poles, and realizing the rural vitalization strategy.

Key words: rural regional system, rural vitalization, rural revitalization poles, specialized villages and towns, spatial pattern, influencing factor