地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (8): 1603-1616.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202008004

• 人口与城市研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国边境地区的城镇化格局及其驱动力

宋周莺1,2(), 祝巧玲1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-29 修回日期:2020-05-06 出版日期:2020-08-25 发布日期:2020-10-25
  • 作者简介:宋周莺(1983-), 女, 浙江缙云人, 博士, 副研究员, 硕士生导师, 主要从事经济地理与区域发展相关研究。E-mail:songzy@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41871120);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA20010102)

Spatio-temporal pattern and driving forces of urbanization in China's border areas

SONG Zhouying1,2(), ZHU Qiaoling1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2019-01-29 Revised:2020-05-06 Online:2020-08-25 Published:2020-10-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41871120);Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA20010102)

摘要:

边境地区是内陆对外开放重要门户,也是全面建成小康社会、优化城镇空间格局的重要组成。本文深入分析2000—2015年中国134个边境县域的城镇化发展格局,基于边境地区城镇化特征构建驱动力体系,并运用地理探测器探析边境地区城镇化驱动机制。研究发现:① 2000—2015年边境地区城镇化水平长期低于全国平均水平且差距不断拉大,面临城镇化发展滞后、动力不足的困境。② 同期,西北、西南边境的城镇化水平偏低、但增速较快;西藏边境的城镇化水平最低、增速平缓;东北、北部边境的城镇化水平稍高、但城镇化速度缓慢甚至停滞。③ 交通力和产业力对边境地区城镇化贡献最大,市场力作用较小,各种驱动力之间存在明显的相互加强作用。④ 西北、西南边境分别形成了以产业力和交通力、市场力和行政力为主要驱动力的城镇化发展机制;西藏边境的自然、社会、经济条件薄弱,尚未形成具有较强贡献作用的城镇化驱动力;东北、北部边境的交通力对城镇化贡献较大,与市场、产业的交互增强效果明显。

关键词: 边境地区, 城镇化, 时空格局, 驱动力, 中国

Abstract:

Border area is not only an important gateway for inland opening-up, but also an critical part in the building of a moderately prosperous society and optimizing national urban spatial pattern in China. Due to the location, natural resources endowment, and traffic accessibility, the urbanization development is relatively slow in border areas. Therefore, border area is a special area that should be given close attention, especially under the background of the Belt and Road Initiative and China's regional coordinated development program. Based on the county-level data from 2000 to 2015, this paper tries to analyze the spatio-temporal pattern of urbanization in 134 border counties, and applies the geographical detector method to study the driving forces of urbanization in border areas. Conclusions are as follows: (1) From 2000 to 2015, urbanization rate in border areas was lower than the national average, and the gap was widening. Some border counties in southern Xinjiang, Tibet, northeast of Inner Mongolia, and Yunnan, are even facing the problem of population loss. (2) In the same period, urbanization rate in the northwestern and southwestern borders is low, but it grows relatively fast compared with other border counties; urbanization rate in Tibetan border area is the lowest and grows relatively slowly; urbanization rate in the northeastern and northern border areas is slightly higher, but it grows slowly or even stagnates. (3) Transportation and industry are the important driving forces of urbanization in border areas, while the driving forces of market is relatively weak. And there are obvious mutual reinforcements among the driving forces, while the effort of resource force increases obviously after interaction. (4) Urbanization rate in the northwestern and southwestern border areas grows relatively fast, with industrial power and transportation power, market power and administrative power as the main driving forces. Tibetan border area has the lowest urbanization rate and growth rate, as the driving force of urbanization with strong contribution has not yet formed in Tibet. In the northeastern and northern border areas, the contribution of transportation power to urbanization is greater than that of other forces, and its interaction with market and industry has obvious effects on urbanization.

Key words: border area, urbanization, spatio-temporal pattern, driving force, China