地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (8): 1557-1571.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202008001

• 人口与城市研究 •    下一篇

北京城市老年贫困人口识别与空间分布

高晓路1,2(), 吴丹贤1,2, 颜秉秋3   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3.北京戏曲艺术职业学院,北京 100068
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-01 修回日期:2020-03-02 出版日期:2020-08-25 发布日期:2020-10-25
  • 作者简介:高晓路(1969-), 女, 内蒙古包头人, 研究员, 博士生导师, 研究方向为城市地理、老龄化地理学与空间规划。E-mail:gaoxl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41871171)

Measure and distribution of urban elderly in poverty: An empirical study in Beijing

GAO Xiaolu1,2(), WU Danxian1,2, YAN Bingqiu3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Beijing Opera Art's College, Beijing 100068, China
  • Received:2019-07-01 Revised:2020-03-02 Online:2020-08-25 Published:2020-10-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41871171)

摘要:

随着中国老龄化程度加深和城镇化水平的提高,城市地区的老年贫困问题日渐突出。由于缺乏明确的界定和统一的标准,老年贫困人口识别的准确性不足,不同研究的结论存在很大分歧。特别是教育、健康、家庭和社会支持等因素与老年贫困的关联被忽视、贫困线的设定较为主观等问题,对厘定城市老年贫困的空间格局和制定相关政策造成很大困扰。本文通过北京市典型居住社区的实证研究对上述问题进行了探讨,首先基于老年人属性变量的因子分析构建了城市老年贫困的综合判别指标;然后通过贫困线的优化分析,估计不同类型居住社区的老年贫困比例;再以市域范围内的街道和中心城区周边的地区办事处为空间单元,对北京市城市老年贫困的空间格局进行了分析。研究结论为:① 资源、健康、独立性和性别是老年人属性差异的决定因子,其中资源因子得分综合反映了城市老年人的贫困程度。② 不同类型居住社区的城市老年贫困比例存在显著差异,根据居住社区的分布,测得北京城市老年人口的贫困比例为9.55%。③ 城市内部老年贫困的空间格局分析表明:城市老年贫困人口比例从首都功能核心区、城市功能拓展区、城乡结合部地区到外围城区顺次增加;城市老年贫困人口密度则以外围城区与首都功能核心区最高,城市功能拓展区居中,城乡结合部地区最低。这些结果为进一步制定不同地区的老年贫困对策提供了参考依据。

关键词: 老年贫困, 空间差异, 贫困测度, 老龄化, 城市居住社区, 北京

Abstract:

Poverty among older people in urban areas is growing along with population ageing and urbanization in China, but the absence of proper indices and method to measure urban elderly poverty brings difficulty to the understanding of the spatial pattern of elderly poverty in cities and policy making in poverty reduction. It is necessary to consider the association of elderly poverty with education, health, family relationship and social support levels of older people and set poverty cutoff more appropriately. With a factor analysis method, we develop a resource-based poverty index to identify poor older residents on the basis of survey data in eight typical residential communities in Beijing. Then, the elderly poverty rates for different residential communities are estimated and the spatial patterns of urban elderly poverty are investigated. It is found that, (1) resource, health, independence and age factors interpret the variation of older residents, among which the score of resource factor constitutes an appropriate indicator of urban elderly poverty. (2) Elderly poverty rate differs significantly for different types of residential communities. With the spatial distribution data of various communities being considered, the poverty rate of elderly population in Beijing is estimated to be 9.55%. (3) The elderly poverty rate of town centers away from the central city is the highest and the poverty rate drops down from the outer to inner areas of the central city gradually. The density of the elderly in poverty, on the other hand, goes to the highest in town centers and the inner city areas, followed by outer central city and the fringe of the central city. These results provide evidences for the formulation of urban policies against elderly poverty in the city.

Key words: elderly poverty, spatial difference, poverty index, aging, urban communities, Beijing