地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (7): 1406-1417.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202007006

• 青藏高原及人类活动 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于位置大数据的青藏高原人类活动时空模式

许珺1(), 徐阳1,2, 胡蕾1,2, 王振波3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟院重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-29 修回日期:2020-04-20 出版日期:2020-07-25 发布日期:2020-09-25
  • 作者简介:许珺(1972-), 女, 博士, 副研究员, 中国地理学会会员(S110007304M), 主要从事地理空间认知、知识表达、空间数据挖掘研究。E-mail: xujun@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA20040401);国家自然科学基金项目(41771477)

Discovering spatio-temporal patterns of human activity on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau based on crowdsourcing positioning data

XU Jun1(), XU Yang1,2, HU Lei1,2, WANG Zhenbo3   

  1. 1. State Key laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2019-03-29 Revised:2020-04-20 Online:2020-07-25 Published:2020-09-25
  • Supported by:
    Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA20040401);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41771477)

摘要:

随着青藏高原城镇化和旅游的发展,人类活动强度不断加剧,有必要对青藏高原不同类型的人类活动时空模式进行研究,以便了解不同区域人类活动对自然环境的影响以及更好地采取生态环境保护措施。利用腾讯位置大数据,分析青藏高原在旅游淡季和旅游旺季的人类活动时空模式,研究旅游人口对青藏高原人类活动的影响。本文分别选取2018年1月和7月的腾讯定位请求数据,构建多时空维度的高阶张量,采用张量分解的方法对数据进行降维,获取旅游淡季和旺季不同时空维度的主要特征,分析活动模式,发现青藏高原在旅游淡季和旺季的活动模式在时间上和空间上都有很大不同,体现了旅游人口造成的影响。在旅游淡季,青藏高原居民的活动在凌晨有个高峰,在午间有个低谷,并且表现有特殊的节日模式,工作日的人类活动主要分布在城镇等人口聚集区,休息日向城镇周边发散;旺季凌晨活动分为两个高峰,一个在时间上较淡季提前,与午夜活动相连,另一个较淡季的时间推迟,旺季活动没有午间的低谷和特殊的节日模式,且工作日和休息日的日间活动都分布较广。

关键词: 青藏高原, 人类活动, 淡旺季, 大数据, 张量分解

Abstract:

The activities of local people and tourists have great effects on the ecological environment on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Different kinds of activities may cause different impacts on ecology and environment. To effectively protect the ecological environment, it is necessary to study the spatiotemporal patterns of different kinds of human activities. In this paper, two Tencent positioning datasets which record one-week location requests in January and July of 2018, respectively, are used to explore the human activities in off-season and peak season of tourism on the plateau. A Tucker tensor decomposition method is employed to reduce the dimension of massive data and obtain the principle modes of human activities. The data in off-season are decomposed into 3 daily patterns, 3 hourly patterns and 8 spatial patterns, and the data in peak season are decomposed into 2 daily patterns, 4 hourly patterns and 8 spatial patterns. By analyzing the core tensor, different kinds of activities are inferred through the relations among different dimensions of data, and the human activities in off-season and peak season of tourism are analyzed. The human activities on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are found to be different from those in other places. Different from ordinary weekday and weekend patterns, there is a mid-week pattern (Tuesday through Friday) and an inter-week pattern (Saturday, Sunday and Monday) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and there is a special holiday pattern in off-season of tourism. It is also found that the human activities in off-season and peak season of tourism are different, which indicates different activities of the local residents and the tourists. In off-season of tourism, the positioning activities are very active in the morning, however, the activities are less active during the daytime of mid-week days than during the daytime of inter-week days, and the activities are mostly found in the cities in the mid-week days but mostly in the outskirts of the cities or on the way to scenic spots in the inter-week days. In off-season, there exist the activities of local residents. In peak season, there are less activities in the morning, but the activities during the day are more broadly distributed both in the mid-week days and in the inter-week days. It is indicated that the activities of tourists are significant in the peak season. After clustering spatial grids with similar patterns, we find that there are mixed spatial patterns in most parts of the study area, which discloses that there are usually multiple kinds of human activities in a region.

Key words: Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, human activity, off-season and peak season, big data, tensor decomposition