地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (6): 1237-1255.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202006011

• 城乡研究与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于居住环境的常州城市居民生活质量空间结构

冯健1, 钟奕纯2   

  1. 1.北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871;
    2.北京清华同衡规划设计研究院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-22 修回日期:2020-02-28 出版日期:2020-06-25 发布日期:2020-08-25
  • 作者简介:冯健(1975-), 男, 江苏沛县人, 副教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事城市地理与城乡规划研究。E-mail: fengjian@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671157);国家自然科学基金项目(41571160)

The spatial structure of urban residents' quality of life in Changzhou based on residential environment

FENG Jian1, ZHONG Yichun2   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    2. Beijing Tsinghua Tongheng Urban Planning & Design Institute, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2018-06-22 Revised:2020-02-28 Online:2020-06-25 Published:2020-08-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41671157);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41571160)

摘要:

第六次全国人口普查数据面世以后,基于因子生态分析的中国城市社会空间结构研究虽取得较多成果,但方法创新还有待推进。本文以常州作为实证研究地区,将人口普查数据与大数据(城市POI数据)相结合,借助网格化处理和公共服务设施可达性计算方法,从居住内部环境(住房条件)和居住外部环境(设施可达性)两方面综合衡量城市居民生活质量,进而探讨城市居民生活质量空间结构及其与居民社会经济属性之间的关系。结果表明,常州城市居民生活质量空间结构呈现出较为明显的圈层结构与扇形结构叠加的模式,城市生活质量空间结构与居民社会经济属性在空间上存在一定的耦合关系,即不同类型居民属性区的生活质量存在较为明显的差异,各类居民属性区均有与之重叠度较高的相对应的生活质量区,这种空间关系的揭示对城市规划和管理具有一定的借鉴意义,同时也从居民社会空间与实体空间互动关系的角度对社会—空间辩证法进行了诠释。

关键词: 生活质量, 城市空间结构, 可达性, POI数据, 常州

Abstract:

After the release of the Sixth Census Data, more research results have been achieved about the socio-spatial structure in urban China based on the method of factor ecology analysis. However, methodological innovation needs to be promoted. In this paper, combining census data with big data, with the aid of the methods of grid processing and calculation of accessibility of public service facilities, the authors try to interpret the quality of life of urban residents from both the internal and the external environments of residence, and to reveal the relationship between the spatial structure of quality of life and the socio-economic status of urban residents. Taking Changzhou City of Jiangsu province as a case study, first of all, the authors extract the housing data from the Sixth Census, and the data of facilities from the urban POI data of Baidu maps. And then, factor analysis, cluster analysis, accessibility analysis and other methods are used to identify the spatial structure of urban residents' quality of life and reveal some characteristics of urban social space from the viewpoint of socio-spatial dialectic. The results suggest that the spatial structure of the quality of life of residents in Changzhou based on residential environment shows a clear pattern of overlap between the circular structure and the fan-shaped one. In addition, there is a spatial coupling between the spatial structure of urban residents' quality of life and their socioeconomic attributes, that is, residents with different social and economic attributes have some differences in their quality of life. The formation of an interactive relationship between these two aspects is the result of a combination of administrative, market and spatial factors, which may lead to overcrowding in the old city, fire safety problems in living and production buildings, traffic congestion problems caused by tidal commuting, social isolation, unreasonable distribution of public service facilities, and other socio-spatial effects. Its enlightenment for urban planning and management lies in the following aspects including the dispersal of the old city, focusing on fire safety in certain areas, perfecting the transportation links between central and peripheral areas, preventing the emergence of social isolation in the high-tech zones, and improving the public service facilities in rural areas.

Key words: quality of life, urban spatial structure, accessibility, POI data, Changzhou