地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (6): 1147-1158.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202006004

• “一带一路”案例研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

制度与文化对嵌入式技术海外转移的影响——以蒙内铁路为例

王姣娥1,2, 杜方叶1,2, 刘卫东1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101;
    2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-11 修回日期:2020-03-13 出版日期:2020-06-25 发布日期:2020-08-25
  • 作者简介:王姣娥(1981-), 女, 湖南涟源人, 研究员, 主要从事交通地理与区域发展研究。E-mail: wangje@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA20010101);国家自然科学优秀青年基金项目(41722103)

Embedded technology transfer from an institutional and cultural perspective: A case study of Mombasa-Nairobi standard gauge railway

WANG Jiao'e1,2, DU Fangye1,2, LIU Weidong1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2019-10-11 Revised:2020-03-13 Online:2020-06-25 Published:2020-08-25
  • Supported by:
    Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA20010101);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41722103)

摘要:

中国与东道国之间制度与文化上的差异,已经成为中国企业“走出去”关注的重点,也是推动“一带一路”建设向高质量发展转变必须考虑的重要因素。现代化铁路项目具有“自然垄断”、投资大、涉及地域广的特点,其建设对运营制度与文化的依赖性强,属于一种典型的变革性项目和嵌入式技术转移。“一带一路”沿线国家制度建设相对薄弱,与中国文化差异较大,且往往不具备铁路运营技术与能力,因此中国铁路在“走出去”的过程中,必须从设计—建设—运营乃至投融资进行全链条考虑,并将铁路项目作为“技术—制度—文化”复合体进行培育,即通过制度保障、文化相互适应以及技术标准、管理模式、产业链条的属地化管理,来保障项目的成功运营。蒙内铁路是中国铁路“走出去”较为成功的案例,本文通过实地调研,总结了“技术—制度—文化”复合体海外发展模式,从而为推动海外项目建设与运营成功、“一带一路”建设向高质量发展提供借鉴意义。

关键词: 企业, 海外投资, 技术—制度—文化复合体, 变革性项目, 走出去

Abstract:

Since the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) was proposed, the pace of projects investment and construction has been accelerated, which accumulated much experience in the going-out strategy in the context of BRI. Modern railway projects are characterized by "natural monopoly", as well as huge investment and extensive geographical coverage. Moreover, their construction is a typical transformative project, which embedded the necessary institution and culture. The countries along the Silk Road are characterized by weak institutional construction, lack of regulatory system, and underdeveloped industrial civilization, therefore they cannot operate and manage the railway system. In this context, all links, including financing, design, construction, and operation, should be considered in the going-out process of China's railway system. The transfer subject is the technology-institution-culture nexus which takes railway technology as the core. In other words, to achieve railway technology transfer successfully, the host countries should offer rational institutional guarantee and cultural adaptation. Besides, the technical standard of railway construction, management mode, and industry chain in the process of railway operation and maintenance need to be localized. Mombasa-Nairobi standard gauge railway is a successful going-out case of China's railway technology. Learning from the case, this paper proposed the concept of "embedded technology transfer" and constructed the theoretical model of technology-institution-culture nexus transfer. The results can provide references for the transfer of transformative projects or technologies between countries with different institutions and cultures.

Key words: enterprise, overseas investment, technology-institution-culture nexus, transformative projects, going-out strategy