地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (6): 1120-1133.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202006002

• 理论探索 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国乡村振兴规划的基础理论与方法论

刘彦随1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101;
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-28 修回日期:2020-05-12 出版日期:2020-06-25 发布日期:2020-08-25
  • 作者简介:刘彦随(1965-), 陕西绥德人, 研究员, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110005331M), 研究方向为农业地理与乡村地理学、城乡发展与土地利用。E-mail: liuys@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41931293);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA23070300)

The basic theory and methodology of rural revitalization planning in China

LIU Yansui1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2019-12-28 Revised:2020-05-12 Online:2020-06-25 Published:2020-08-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41931293);Strategic Leading Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA23070300)

摘要:

农业农村现代化是实施乡村振兴战略的总目标,科学编制乡村振兴规划事关国家乡村振兴战略的推进及实施成效。《全国乡村振兴战略规划(2018—2022)》提出以来,如何建立符合中国乡村发展基本特点与规律的乡村振兴规划基础理论,研制县域乡村振兴规划方法与方案,成为当前学术研究及政府决策的重要课题和重点任务。基于乡村地域多体系统理论,构建了乡村振兴规划理论模式,提出了“三主三分”乡村振兴规划方法。“三主三分”的基本原理是依据特定区域乡村地域系统结构与格局,进行地域系统主体功能分区、主导类型分类、主要用途分级,确立乡村振兴规划空间体系及其优化调整方案。该体系运用于宁夏回族自治区盐池县乡村振兴总体规划,制定了坚持生态优先、因地制宜、产业支撑、城乡融合的乡村振兴规划原则,提出应重点发展乡村专业合作组织和村镇混合制经济,加快建设以滩羊、黄花、小杂粮产业化为特色、生态文化旅游智慧化为亮点的优势产业体系;在空间上突出中心城镇地位,形成以县城和3个重点镇为中心、“三产”融合发展的村镇有机体、居业协同体。本研究是对创建中国乡村振兴规划体系的有益尝试,可为全国县级乡村振兴规划与乡村发展决策提供参考依据。

关键词: 乡村振兴, 乡村振兴规划, 乡村地域系统, 多级目标, 规划技术, 乡村地理学, 宁夏盐池县

Abstract:

Agricultural and rural modernization is the general goal of the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy. The scientific formulation of the rural revitalization planning is related to the implementation effect of the national rural revitalization strategy. How to establish the basic theory of rural revitalization and develop the methods of rural revitalization planning have become important tasks of academic research and government decision-making. This paper constructed the theoretical model and method system of rural revitalization planning, tried to carry out the main function-oriented zoning, dominant type classification and principal purpose classification of rural regional system, and established the spatial system of rural revitalization planning and its optimal adjustment scheme. This system was applied to the overall rural revitalization planning in Yanchi County of Ningxia. By establishing the principle of rural revitalization planning that sticks to ecological priority, adaptation to local condition, industrial support and urban-rural integration, it put forward that the priority should be given to the development of rural professional cooperation organizations and the mixed economy of villages and towns, and the acceleration of the construction of advantageous industrial system characterized by the industrialization of tan-sheep, day lily, and minor cereals, and highlighted by the wisdom of eco-cultural tourism. Moreover, it was encouraged to give prominence to the position of the central town in space, and form the village organism and housing industry coordination body with the county seat and three key towns as the center of integrated industry development. The typical case study of Yanchi County has shown that the main contents and technical points of rural revitalization planning were embodied in the following four aspects: (1) determining the overall orientation of rural revitalization planning, and clarifying the phased development mode, key areas; (2) developing the county area based on the main function-oriented zoning, leading type classification and main purpose classification system, and exploring the territorial pattern and differentiation rules; (3) establishing the county development mode and industrial system, formulating coordination schemes of different main function-oriented zones, and revealing the spatial configuration and structural relationship of different dominant types; (4) exploring the local association and hierarchical system of each dominant type in its scale and level. The main task of implementing the rural revitalization planning is to promote the formation of a new pattern of urban-rural development with factors gathering, reasonable structure and orderly space in accordance with the objective requirements of "industrial prosperity, ecological livability, rural civilization, effective governance and prosperous life". China is facing great differences in rural development and many problems in transformation. Regional disparities and urban-rural differences determine the complexity, diversity and differences of rural governance and rural revitalization planning. China's rural transformation-urban and rural integration-rural revitalization-high quality development will become the major development logic and new normal in the future. The research on rural revitalization planning in the new era should focus on the overall situation of regional coordination and urban-rural integration, and solve the practical problems of "rural disease", so as to serve the national rural revitalization planning and scientific decision-making.

Key words: rural revitalization, rural revitalization planning, rural regional system, multi-level objectives, planning technology, rural geography, Yanchi County, Ningxia