地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (5): 931-948.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202005004

• 土地覆被变化与生态系统服务 • 上一篇    下一篇

喜马拉雅山脉中段土地覆被的垂直分异特征

张镱锂1,2,3, 吴雪1,3, 郑度1   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院青藏高原地球科学卓越创新中心,北京 100101
    3.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-10 修回日期:2020-01-07 出版日期:2020-05-25 发布日期:2020-07-25
  • 作者简介:张镱锂(1962-), 男, 研究员, 博士生导师, 主要从事生物地理与自然地理综合研究。E-mail: zhangyl@igsnrr.ac.cn; wuxuexxl@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41761144081);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA20040201);第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(2019QZKK0603)

Vertical variation of land cover in the Central Himalayas

ZHANG Yili1,2,3, WU Xue1,3, ZHENG Du1   

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2.CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-10-10 Revised:2020-01-07 Online:2020-05-25 Published:2020-07-25
  • Supported by:
    National Nature Sciences Foundation of China(41761144081);Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA20040201);The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research(2019QZKK0603)

摘要:

喜马拉雅山脉中段的珠穆朗玛峰等地,海拔高差巨大、生境复杂多变、土地覆被类型多样且植被垂直带谱完整,是全球范围内研究土地覆被垂直变化的理想场所。本文基于30 m空间分辨率的土地覆被数据(2010年)和DEM数据,在ArcGIS和Matlab平台的支持下,提出并运用脊线法、样带法和扇区法3种山地南北坡划分方法,研究了喜马拉雅山土地覆被垂直分布与结构差异。结果表明:① 山地土地覆被分布具有明确的垂直地带性结构特征,喜马拉雅中部土地覆被垂直带谱为南六北四式,土地覆被垂直带谱中具有人类活动的特点。② 南北坡之间的土地覆被垂直带谱差异明显,南坡土地覆被类型完整多样,北坡相对简单;对同类型土地覆被而言,南坡较北坡分布高程低、幅度宽。③ 依据各类型分布面积比随海拔变化情况,土地覆被类型在南北坡上的垂直分布可分为4种模式:冰川雪被、稀疏植被和草地为单峰分布型,裸地为南单峰北双峰分布型。④ 3种划分方法中,南坡的土地覆被垂直带结构具有相似性,而北坡的土地覆被垂直带结构存在差异,扇区法较好地反映了土地覆被自然分布格局。

关键词: 土地覆被, 垂直带, 喜马拉雅山脉, 珠穆朗玛峰, 马卡鲁峰, 卓奥友峰

Abstract:

The Qomolangma Mountain region within the Central Himalayas is characterized by obvious altitudinal variation, habitat complexity, and land cover diversity. This region is therefore one of the most sensitive areas to climate change in the world. Besides, because this region has the most complete natural vertical spectrum in the world, it is ideal for studying the vertical structure of alpine land cover. Utilizing land cover data for 2010 (30 m resolution) along with digital elevation model outputs, three division methods were defined that encompass the northern and southern slopes of Qomolangma Mountain. These comprised the ridgeline method, the sample transect method, and the sector method. The study investigated altitudinal distributions, similarities and differences, and changes in the degree of land cover on the northern and southern slopes of the Himalayas area using the software ArcGIS and MATLAB tools and division models. The main results of this analysis are listed as follows:
Firstly, the distribution of land cover in mountainous areas was characterized by an obvious vertical spectrum structure, with the south-six and north-four pattern of vertical spectrum of land cover in the Central Himalayas marked by the influence of human activities. Secondly, zonal distribution was exhibited by forests, grasslands, sparse vegetation, barren land, glaciers, and snow covers from low to high altitudes. It was markedly different in the composition and structure of land cover vertical spectrum between the northern and southern slopes of this mountain area. The vertical spectrum of land cover types on the southern slope was complete and diverse, but it was relatively simple on the northern slope. The study shows that given the same land cover type, the amplitude of elevation distribution on the southern slope was wide, while that on the northern slope was narrow. The distribution of land cover types on the southern slope was low. Thirdly, the results show that the area distribution ratio of each land cover type varied with elevation according to change mode. Vertical distribution patterns of land cover types on the southern and northern slopes were therefore divided into four categories, with glaciers, snow, sparse vegetation, and grasslands conforming to unimodal distribution patterns. The bare land also followed a unimodal distribution pattern on the southern slope, but it followed a bimodal one on the northern slope. Fourthly, all kinds of vertical belt structures and land cover divisions on the southern slope were similar, but they were different from one another on the northern slope due to division methods. In comparison with field survey data, results reported here for the sector method were more in line with the actual situation.

Key words: land cover, altitudinal zonation, Central Himalayas, Mt. Qomolangma, Mt. Makalu, Mt. Cho Oyu