地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (4): 736-752.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202004006

• 农业与乡村地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

论乡村可持续性与乡村可持续性科学

贺艳华1,3, 邬建国2,4,5, 周国华1,3(), 周兵兵5   

  1. 1. 湖南师范大学资源与环境科学学院,长沙 410081
    2. 美国亚利桑那州立大学生命科学学院,美国 亚利桑那州 85281
    3. 地理空间大数据挖掘与应用湖南省重点实验室,长沙 410081
    4. 北京师范大学地理科学学部人与环境系统可持续性研究中心,北京 100875
    5. 美国亚利桑那州立大学可持续性学院,美国 亚利桑那州 85281
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-05 修回日期:2020-03-16 出版日期:2020-04-25 发布日期:2020-04-22
  • 通讯作者: 周国华 E-mail:uuy828@163.com
  • 作者简介:贺艳华(1982-), 女, 湖南宁乡人, 博士, 副教授, 研究方向为城乡土地利用与可持续发展。E-mail: zlgx888@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41971224);国家社科基金重大项目(18ZDA040);湖南省地理学一流学科建设项目

Discussion on rural sustainability and rural sustainability science

HE Yanhua1,3, WU Jianguo2,4,5, ZHOU Guohua1,3(), ZHOU Bingbing5   

  1. 1. Department of Resources and Environment Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
    2. School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA
    3. Hunan Key Laboratory of Geospatial Big Data Mining and Application, Changsha 410081, China
    4. Center for Human-Environment System Sustainability, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    5. School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA
  • Received:2019-09-05 Revised:2020-03-16 Online:2020-04-25 Published:2020-04-22
  • Contact: ZHOU Guohua E-mail:uuy828@163.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971224);The Major Projects of National Social Science foundation of China(18ZDA040);Construction Program for First-class Disciplines (Geography) of Hunan Province

摘要:

面对全球环境挑战,可持续发展备受关注,成为21世纪举世瞩目的新兴领域。乡村可持续性科学作为可持续性科学的重要组成部分,是一门以跨学科思维、多尺度视角来理解和改善乡村人地关系的、以应用为导向的整合型学科。与城市可持续性科学相互对应并相互联系,乡村可持续性科学是应对乡村衰退、促进乡村可持续发展所急需的科学支撑。本文在讨论可持续性、乡村可持续性与乡村可持续性科学概念基础上,以农业可持续性、社区可持续性与农民福祉为主要内容,构建了一个多学科综合的乡村可持续性科学研究框架。中国是一个农业大国,城乡差距明显,“三农”问题复杂,1978年改革开放以来,乡村发展迅速,但也面临艰巨挑战。乡村振兴战略的实施是推动中国乡村向可持续发展转型的有效途径,但其理论与实践体系尚不完善。具有中国特色的乡村可持续性科学的发展,可以为乡村振兴战略实施提供理论、技术与决策支撑。为此,本文对中国乡村可持续发展现状进行了分析,并基于文献分析探讨了中国乡村可持续研究的不足。结论显示,中国乡村迫切需要向可持续发展转型,但乡村可持续性科学基础薄弱,需借鉴国际经验,立足本国国情,强化跨学科研究与人地系统耦合研究,聚焦9个适应中国当前乡村发展需求的核心议题,并因地制宜地将乡村可持续性研究成果转化为指导乡村振兴发展的行动策略。

关键词: 乡村, 可持续发展, 可持续性科学, 人地系统耦合, 跨学科

Abstract:

In the face of global environmental challenges, sustainable development has received much attention worldwide, and sustainability science has emerged in the 21st century as a globally well-recognized new area of science. Rural sustainability science, as an important part of sustainability science, is a use-inspired science aimed at understanding and improving the dynamic relationship between people and the rural environment from a transdisciplinary and multiscale perspective. In tandem with urban sustainability science, it provides much needed scientific support for dealing with rural decline and promoting rural sustainable development. In this paper, we first discuss the concepts of sustainability, rural sustainability, and rural sustainability science, and then propose a transdisciplinary integrated framework of rural sustainability science that focuses on agricultural sustainability, community sustainability, and rural human well-being. China is a nation with deep rural roots, complex problems involving interactions among agriculture, farmers, and villages, and huge urban-rural socioeconomic gaps. Since the reform and opening-up in 1978, China's rural areas have developed rapidly, but they still face numerous tough challenges. Rural revitalization strategies are needed for promoting the rural transition toward sustainability, but the necessary scientific basis and appropriate guidelines for formulating such strategies are still lacking. We argue that rural sustainability science can provide theoretical, technical, and decision-making support for the implementation of rural revitalization strategies. Our analysis of the current status of China's rural sustainable development indicates that the transition to sustainability is urgently needed, and so is the science that guides the transition. To address these problems, we call for transdisciplinary research that couples rural society and its environment, focusing on nine core issues in line with the needs of China's rural development and aiming to transfer knowledge of rural sustainability into local adaptive actions.

Key words: rural areas, sustainable development, sustainability science, coupled human-environment system, transdisciplinary research