地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (4): 708-721.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202004004

• 全球化与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

知识流动空间的城市关系建构与创新网络模拟

马海涛   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-17 修回日期:2019-12-03 出版日期:2020-04-25 发布日期:2020-04-22
  • 作者简介:马海涛(1979-), 男, 山东滕州人, 博士, 副研究员, 硕士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110008167M), 主要从事城市网络与创新研究。E-mail: maht@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41971209);国家自然科学基金项目(41590842);国家自然科学基金项目(41571151);国家自然科学基金项目(41201128)

The theoretical construction and network simulation of intercity innovative relationships in knowledge flow space

MA Haitao   

  1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2018-12-17 Revised:2019-12-03 Online:2020-04-25 Published:2020-04-22
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971209);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41590842);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41571151);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41201128)

摘要:

知识经济时代城市间的创新关系是新时代城市间相互作用关系的新内涵,研究者尝试采用各种方法探索城市间创新关系及其网络特征。然而,如何从理论上建构知识流动空间的城市间创新关系?如何设计更加合理的城市间创新网络模拟方法?这些问题却少有专门探讨。基于相关研究,本文提出了城市间创新关系构建的理论框架,认为城市间创新网络本质上是区别于“硬网络”的“软网络”,是一种主观的关系建构过程,需要经过异城创新主体间的点—点关系向城—城之间关系的尺度转换,这一转换过程容易发生夸大或偏离城市间客观存在的创新关系,对结果的精确度产生很大影响,应对关系建构给予充分理论论证;本文论述了4种城市间创新关系建构和网络模拟方法,包括科技成果异城合作的城市间无向网络构建方法、科技成果转让转移的城市间有向网络构建方法、高端人才跨城移动的城市间创新网络建构方法和创新企业机构多城分布的城市间创新网络建构方法,并运用相关数据进行了模拟试验与结果展示,来反映城市间创新关系的不同方面。本研究有助于推动从城市地理学视角和城市关系的维度探讨全球/区域的创新空间格局,为城市间创新网络研究提供理论和方法支撑。

关键词: 流动空间, 创新空间, 知识流, 城市间相互作用, 关系建构, 网络模拟方法

Abstract:

The interactive relationships between cities in the knowledge economy era have attracted much attention. Researchers have applied a range of methods to explore intercity innovative relationships and associated network characteristics. It nevertheless remains unclear just how intercity innovative relationships can be theoretically constructed based on knowledge flow space and how further scientific simulation methods can be designed. Research questions in this area have rarely been explored in detail, an issue which has inevitably placed obstacles on further exploration. A framework for the theoretical construction of intercity innovative relationships is presented in this study; the basis for this research is that an intercity innovation network is essentially a 'soft network', distinct from a 'hard network'. These interconnections are founded on a subjective relationship construction process and therefore necessitate scale transformation from 'point-point' connections between innovative subjects in different cities with respect to 'city-city' interactions. At the same time, this transformation process is prone to exaggerations and deviations from objective intercity innovative relationships and therefore exerts considerable influence on the accuracy of results such that constructions must be entirely theoretical. Four construction methods for intercity innovative relationships and network simulation are summarized in this study, including an intercity undirected network based on cross-city co-operations between scientific and technological achievements, an intercity directed network based on the cross-city transfer of scientific and technological achievements, an intercity innovation network based on the cross-city flow of high-end talents, and an intercity innovation network based on the multi-city distribution of innovative enterprises and institutions. Simulation tests were then undertaken using relevant data to reflect aspects of these relationships. The results of this analysis are conducive to further exploration of global and regional innovative spatial patterns from the perspective of urban geography and intercity relationships and provide a theoretical and methodological foundation for further research on intercity innovation networks.

Key words: flow space, innovative space, knowledge flow, intercity interactions, relationship construction, network simulation method