地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (3): 529-543.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202003007

• 地表过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江中游江汉—洞庭盆地全新世以来水文环境演变与人类活动

赵成双苹1, 莫多闻1,2()   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院/教育部地表过程分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100871
    2. 河南科学院地理研究所,郑州 450052
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-12 修回日期:2020-01-03 出版日期:2020-03-25 发布日期:2020-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 莫多闻 E-mail:dmo@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:赵成双苹(1991-), 女, 河北新乐人, 博士, 研究方向为环境演变与环境考古。E-mail: zhaochengsp@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社科基金重大项目(11&ZD183);河南省特聘研究员基金项目;郑州中华之源与嵩山文明研究会重大课题;国家科技支撑计划项目课题(2013BAK08B02);国家自然科学基金项目(41701220)

Holocene hydro-environmental evolution and its impacts on human activities in Jianghan-Dongting Basin, middle reaches of the Yangtze River, China

ZHAO Chengshuangping1, MO Duowen1,2()   

  1. 1. Laboratory for Earth Surface Process, Ministry of Education, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2. Institute of Geographical Sciences, Henan Academy of Sciences, Zhengzhou, 450052
  • Received:2019-07-12 Revised:2020-01-03 Online:2020-03-25 Published:2020-05-25
  • Contact: MO Duowen E-mail:dmo@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Major Program of National Social Science Foundation of China(11&ZD183);Foundation for Distinguished Professors of Henan Province;Zhengzhou Research Council for the Origins of Chinese Civilization;National Key Project of Scientific and Technical Supporting Program of China(2013BAK08B02);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41701220)

摘要:

本文基于长江中游江汉—洞庭盆地18个钻孔岩性、沉积特征及年代数据,结合研究区考古遗址点时空分布特征,恢复研究区全新世以来水文环境演变过程,并探讨了区域水文环境演变的成因机制及其与人类活动的关系。结果表明,受东海海面上升和泥沙淤积等因素影响,距今11.5—5.5 ka,长江中游地区河湖水位呈上升趋势,随着新石器文化的发展及稻作农业活动的增加,人类文化聚落自山前平原地带逐渐向盆地平原中部扩展;距今5.5—4.0 ka,长江中游河湖水位有所下降,新石器晚期的屈家岭—石家河文化迅速发展,聚落数量增多,平原腹地聚落比例增加;距今4.0 ka前后,河湖水位再次有所上升,洪泛过程加剧,可能是石家河文化快速衰落的主要原因。

关键词: 江汉—洞庭盆地, 全新世, 水文环境演变, 人地关系

Abstract:

Based on the comprehensive analyses of 18 core profiles' sedimentary sequences and lithological characteristics in Jianghan-Dongting Basin of the middle reaches of Yangtze River and the spatial-temporal distribution of archeological sites in this area, we reconstructed the Holocene hydro-environmental evolution of the research area, and its relationship with human activities. The comparison reveals that in 11.5-5.5 ka BP, the water level of rivers and lakes in the middle Yangtze River presented a rising trend, concurrently, under the development of Neolithic culture and rice agricultural activities, human occupation extended from piedmont plain to inner basin plain in the research area. The water level fell in 5.5-4.0 ka BP, meanwhile, the number of human settlements of Qujialing-Shijiahe culture rapidly increased, especially in the inner basin plain. The water level rose again around 4.0 ka BP, and floods spread massively in this period, which led to the decline of Shijiahe culture. The main causes of hydro-environmental evolution in the research area are the fluctuation of sea level and the aggradation of fluvio-lacustrine sediments.

Key words: Jianghan-Dongting Basin, Holocene, hydrological environmental change, human-environment interaction