地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (2): 426-442.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002015

• 文化与旅游地理 • 上一篇    

南京内城商业绅士化发育特征研究

宋伟轩1, 孙洁2(), 陈艳如1,3, 尹上岗4, 陈培阳5   

  1. 1. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所 流域地理学重点实验室,南京 210008
    2. 南京大学建筑与城市规划学院,南京 210093
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京 101408
    4. 南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210023
    5. 苏州大学建筑与城市规划系,苏州 215123
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-30 修回日期:2019-11-01 出版日期:2020-02-25 发布日期:2020-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 孙洁 E-mail:sunjie20063953@hotmail.com
  • 作者简介:宋伟轩(1981-), 男, 吉林敦化人, 博士, 副研究员, 研究方向为城市社会地理。E-mail:wxsong@niglas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771184)

Commercial gentrification in the inner city of Nanjing, China

SONG Weixuan1, SUN Jie2(), CHEN Yanru1,3, YIN Shanggang4, CHEN Peiyang5   

  1. 1. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
    2. School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101408, China
    4. School of Geographical Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
    5. School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2018-08-30 Revised:2019-11-01 Online:2020-02-25 Published:2020-04-25
  • Contact: SUN Jie E-mail:sunjie20063953@hotmail.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41771184)

摘要:

商业绅士化是指城市中传统商业、居住或工业被更高价值商业取代和置换的现象,与居住绅士化互为因果。由于城市发展阶段、模式和管制环境不同,不同国家和地区商业绅士化社会空间特征表现出显著差异。20世纪末以来,在城市社会空间转型语境下,具有异域风情的餐厅、酒吧、咖啡馆、健身房等高档消费场所置换传统住宅或社区商业并在城市特定空间中集聚,是中国最典型的商业绅士化现象。遴选出符合商业绅士化特征的六类高端商娱场所,采用空间核密度等方法,对2008年和2018年南京内城上述商娱场所空间集聚、演进模式和机理效应进行分析。研究发现:① 商业绅士化“热点区”首先出现在城市传统商业中心和文化历史街区,随后向商业中心周边和新兴商业地段跳跃式扩散;② 根据实践路径差异,可将南京内城商业绅士化分为整体植入式、侵入演替式和转型升级式三种模式,分别以1912街区、南京大学—南京师范大学(南大—南师大)片区和新街口地区为代表;③ 经济和文化力量在推动商业绅士化的发生演化中均发挥重要作用,其中地方政府、资本联手对“商业租差”的追逐,以及年轻、高收入绅士化群体日益增长的时尚、高端文化消费需求,从供需两端驱动着商业绅士化过程;④ 商业绅士化在提升城市商业活力和经济效益的同时,也在一定程度上产生对原住居民和低端商业的排挤和置换效应。

关键词: 绅士化, 商业绅士化, 中产阶层, 租差, 置换, 南京

Abstract:

Commercial gentrification has been a research frontier of gentrification. It refers to the phenomenon that the traditional business, residence or industry is replaced by business with higher value in the city. Its connotation includes: (1) renovation and renewal of commercial environment and material landscapes; (2) realization of the rent gap of commercial space; (3) the upgrading and succession of business and consumption culture; (4) advanced replacement of business and consumer groups. The social spatial characteristics of commercial gentrification show differences in different countries and regions, for different stages, modes and regulatory environments of urban development. Under the influence of economic globalization and western-style consumer culture, traditional residence or community business was replaced by restaurants with exotic customs, bars, cafes, gyms, and other high-end consumer places, which mainly meet the growing needs of the middle-class consumer groups. They gathered in the specific space of the city since the end of the 20th century. This is the typical commercial gentrification in China, which is a business upgrading and replacement process that meets higher consumer demand. Commercial gentrification in China has a more intense process, as well as a wider range of impact, than that in European and American countries. The paper conducts a kernel density analysis of the six high-end entertainment establishments in the inner city of Nanjing in 2008 and 2018. The result shows that: (1) the "hot spots" of commercial gentrification first appear in the traditional commercial centers and historic conservation areas, and then spread to the periphery of commercial centers and new commercial areas; (2) according to the difference of practice path, commercial gentrification in inner Nanjing can be divided into three modes of holistic implantation, invasive succession, and transformation and upgrading, which are respectively represented by 1912 blocks, NJU-NNU area and Xinjiekou area. Both economic and cultural forces play an important role in promoting the evolution of the three modes of commercial gentrification. The process of commercial gentrification is driven by both the supply side and the demand side, including the facts that local government and capital join hands to pursue commercial rent gap, as well as that young and high-income gentrification groups have a growing demand for fashion and high-end consumption. Commercial gentrification has promoted the business vitality and economic benefits of the city. Also, it has affected the authenticity of the historical blocks, the inclusiveness of the commercial space and the fairness of the space production to a certain extent, for its exclusion and displacement produce effects on the residents, and the low-end business and consumer groups. Commercial gentrification involves cultural identity, quality of life, consumption experience and status symbol, meaning that it has more complicated social spatial connotation than residential gentrification. Consequently, it is urgent to conduct a more systematic study on the phenomenon of commercial gentrification in China.

Key words: gentrification, commercial gentrification, middle class, rent gap, displacement, Nanjing