地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (2): 318-331.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002008

• 人口与城市研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国优质基础教育资源空间格局形成机制及综合效应

袁振杰1,2,3, 郭隽万果4, 杨韵莹5, 朱竑1,2,3   

  1. 1. 广州大学地理科学学院华南人文地理与城市发展研究中心,广州 510006
    2. 广东省城市与移民研究中心, 广州 510006
    3. 南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(珠海),珠海 519082
    4. 中共益阳市委党校,益阳 413000
    5. 澳大利亚墨尔本大学教育研究生院,维多利亚州 帕克维尔3010
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-29 修回日期:2020-01-13 出版日期:2020-02-25 发布日期:2020-04-25
  • 作者简介:袁振杰(1989-), 男, 广东东莞人, 博士, 副教授, 主要从事社会文化地理学和教育地理学研究。E-mail:zjyuan@gzhu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    广东省自然科学基金项目(2019A1515012102);国家自然科学基金项目(41701146);国家自然科学基金项目(41601133);国家自然科学基金项目(41971184)

Analysis of the spatial structure, mechanism and social-political effects of the high-quality basic educational resources in China

YUAN Zhenjie1,2,3, GUO Junwanguo4, YANG Yunying5, ZHU Hong1,2,3   

  1. 1. Centre for Human Geography and Urban Development, School of Geographical Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
    2. Guangdong Provincial Center for Urban and Migration Studies, Guangzhou 510006, China
    3. Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory(Zhuhai), Zhuhai 519082, Guangdong, China
    4. Yiyang Party School of City Party Committee, Yiyang 413000, Hunan, China
    5. Melbourne Graduate School of Education, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Australia
  • Received:2019-07-29 Revised:2020-01-13 Online:2020-02-25 Published:2020-04-25
  • Supported by:
    Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China(2019A1515012102);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41701146);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41601133);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971184)

摘要:

教育关乎一个国家人口素质的提升和综合实力的发展,也是塑造国家和地区人地关系的重要因素。通过回顾并反思中西方人文地理学视角下的教育资源配置研究,总结当前中国相关研究的不足。借鉴当前西方教育资源空间格局研究中所采取的“资源格局—影响机制—社会效应”的主流路径,本文利用多种空间分析和机制研究方法,对中国优质基础教育资源空间格局、形成机制和综合效应进行了分析。研究发现:① 优质小学基础教育资源和优质中学教育资源的区域格局和强度虽各有差异,但都体现出不平衡的发展特征,特别是在区域尺度上,体现出明显的东西部差异。此外,中国几大城市群,如京津冀,沪宁杭,珠三角,武汉都市圈以及成渝都市圈等,是优质基础教育资源的优势区域;② 优质小学教育资源的形成和规模增长与城市居民经济自由度以及城市专任教师规模两个因素高度相关;优质中学教育资源的形成和规模增长和城市本底经济社会发展水平因素高度相关;③ 在多元相关机制作用下,中国优质教育资源空间结构在当下及未来必定处于复杂动态变化之中,并将更为深刻地塑造着城市与城市、城市与社会之间的互动关系。本文有助于理解中国优质教育资源空间结构不平衡的现状,同时反思和探索教育资源结构所蕴含和产生的政治意义和社会影响。

关键词: 教育资源, 教育公平, 空间结构, 基础教育

Abstract:

Education is not only important for strengthening a country's population quality and comprehensive power but key in reshaping the "man-land" relations in a country. This article reviews studies on the distribution of educational resources in both Chinese and Anglophone literature and summarizes the research gaps in the Chinese literature, which include but are not limited to the downplay of the analysis of mechanism and comprehensive effects of the spatial structure of educational resources. Employing different map-making technologies and mechanism-analysis methods, this article dives into three findings. First, though spatial features are slightly different between primary school level and middle school level, eastern regions generally have higher quality educational resources than western regions. In addition, urban agglomeration, including Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Shanghai-Ningbo-Hangzhou, and the Pearl River Delta, have an advantage in attracting and cultivating high-quality educational resources. Second, the quantity of high-quality primary school resources is positively correlated with annual per capita disposable income of urban households and number of full-time primary school teachers. The quantity of high-quality middle school resources is positively correlated with the comprehensive economic and social performance of the city. Third, when affected by multiple mechanisms, the spatial structure of China's high-quality educational resources is dynamic and deeply intertwines with the interrelations between cities as well as between the societies within each city. This article contributes both to the understanding of the unequal spatial structure of high-quality educational resources in China and to the analysis of complex socio-political effects on this transforming structure. Its findings encourage further research on the connection between the spatial structure of a region's educational resources and its cooperation and geopolitics as well as on the resulting social mobility among different social strata. Study limitations include: place-related elements, such as local political resources, were not sufficiently considered when selecting factors; there is a lack of longitudinal analysis; and not enough attention is paid to the combination of number-based data and geo-information-based data in analyses.

Key words: educational resources, educational equality, spatial structure, basic education