地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (1): 194-208.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202001014

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国城市规划建设用地标准及气候和地形地貌修订

徐勇1,2, 赵燊1,2, 樊杰1,2()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-20 修回日期:2019-12-27 出版日期:2020-01-25 发布日期:2020-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 樊杰 E-mail:fanj@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:徐勇(1964-), 男, 陕西榆林人, 博士, 研究员, 博士生导师, 主要从事土地利用与人地关系机理模拟、农业与乡村发展、资源环境承载力评价等研究工作。E-mail: xuy@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目(2019QZKK0406)

Urban planning construction land standard and its revision of climate and topography in China

XU Yong1,2, ZHAO Shen1,2, FAN Jie1,2()   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-06-20 Revised:2019-12-27 Online:2020-01-25 Published:2020-03-25
  • Contact: FAN Jie E-mail:fanj@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program(2019QZKK0406)

摘要:

城市规划建设用地标准是科学配置城市各类建设用地的技术规范和编制、修订城市总体规划的基础。针对中国现行城市规划建设用地标准存在的用地指标控制阈值高低差距较大、气候修订缺乏地域分异和地形地貌因素缺失等问题,本文按照“总量—结构”控制的建标思路,提出了标准建立、修订的分步式流程框架和定量测算方法,通过条件设定建立了普适性的建设用地基础标准,进而选择城市人口规模、日照间距系数、河谷地(山间盆地)宽度、地形坡度等关键指标,定量分析了各指标与基础标准之间的关系,形成与基础标准配套的气候和地形地貌修订标准。主要研究结果包括:确定了设定条件下适用于全国不同地区的由人均建设用地面积和人均单项用地类型结构控制的建设用地基础标准;按城市人口规模等级对基础标准进行了量化修订;定量测算了人均居住用地面积随日照间距系数变化的情况,提出了按纬度方向变化的人均建设用地气候修订标准;阐释了河谷地(山间盆地)宽度变化与公园绿地的配置,量化分析了地形坡度与人均建设用地面积变化的关系,建立了针对山地、丘陵地区城市规划建设用地的地形地貌修订标准。

关键词: 城市规划, 建设用地标准, 气候修订标准, 地形地貌修订标准

Abstract:

Urban planning construction land standard is the technical specification for allocating various types of urban construction land scientifically, and is the basis for drawing up and revising the overall urban planning as well. In view of China's current urban planning construction land standard, there are many problems such as the big gap of land use control threshold, the lack of regional differences in climate revision, and ignorance of the topographical and geomorphological factors. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a step-by-step process framework and quantitative calculation method for the establishment and revision of standards in accordance with the principle of "total-structure" control. Through the setting of conditions, a universal basic standard for construction land was established. Then quantitative analysis was made for the relations between each index and the basic standard with the selected key indicators such as urban population size, sunshine spacing coefficient, valley area (intermountain basin) width and terrain slope. Finally we formed a revision standard for climate, topography and geomorphology which is matched with the basic standard. The main results are as follows: (1) The per capita construction land area of 95 m 2/person can be used as the total indicator for the basic standard of urban planning in China. The percentage of corresponding per capita for each type of construction land is 32.5% for residential land, 7.42% for public administration and public service land, 22.5% for industrial land, 17.5% for transport facilities, 12.5% of green land, and 7.58% of other types of land. The results of revision value of urban population scale shows that the impact of population size difference on the per capita construction land is relatively weak. (2) The climate revision results of per capita residential land and per capita construction land in major cities show that the climate revision value varies greatly between northern and southern China. The climate revision value of the per capita area of construction land varies by latitude as follows: the figure for 20° north latitude is 93 m 2/person; the figure for 30° north latitude is 97 m 2/person; the figure for 40° north latitude is 103 m 2/person; and the figure for 50° north latitude is 115 m 2/person. The basic standard value of 95 m 2/person is roughly distributed along the Xiamen - Guilin - Kunming line. (3) The cities located in mountainous areas, hilly valleys or intermontane basins can reduce the allocation of community parks and comprehensive parks when the average width of river valley or intermontane basin is less than 2 km. When the average width of the valley or intermontane basins is between 2 km and 4 km, the allocation of the comprehensive parks can be reduced. The revised results of per capita land for construction use on slopes indicate that the terrain slope has a great impact on the revised value of per capita construction land. The revised value at 3° is 3.68% higher than the baseline value, and the increases of 8°, 15° and 25° are 11.25%, 26.49% and 68.47%, respectively.

Key words: urban planning, construction land standard, climate revision standard, revision standard of topography and geomorphology