地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (1): 143-159.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202001011

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国土地利用空间格局刻画方法研究

鞠洪润1,2,3, 左丽君2, 张增祥2(), 赵晓丽2, 汪潇2, 温庆可2, 刘芳2, 徐进勇2, 刘斌2, 易玲2, 胡顺光2, 孙菲菲2, 汤占中2,3,4   

  1. 1. 青岛大学旅游与地理科学学院,青岛 266071
    2. 中国科学院空天信息创新研究院,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    4. 邢台学院资源与环境学院,邢台 054001
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-11 修回日期:2019-11-09 出版日期:2020-01-25 发布日期:2020-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 张增祥 E-mail:zhangzx@radi.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:鞠洪润(1990-), 女, 山东青岛人, 博士, 讲师,研究方向为土地利用/土地覆盖变化与空间分析。E-mail: juhr@radi.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2017ZX07101-001)

Methods research on describing the spatial pattern of land use types in China

JU Hongrun1,2,3, ZUO Lijun2, ZHANG Zengxiang2(), ZHAO Xiaoli2, WANG Xiao2, WEN Qingke2, LIU Fang2, XU Jinyong2, LIU Bin2, YI Ling2, HU Shunguang2, SUN Feifei2, TANG Zhanzhong2,3,4   

  1. 1. School of Tourism and Geography Science, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, China
    2. Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    4. College of Resources and Environment, Xingtai University, Xingtai 054001, Hebei, China
  • Received:2018-06-11 Revised:2019-11-09 Online:2020-01-25 Published:2020-03-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Zengxiang E-mail:zhangzx@radi.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment(2017ZX07101-001)

摘要:

土地利用空间格局研究是土地利用/覆盖变化(LUCC)理论和实践的基础,对土地利用空间格局进行有效刻画有利于国土资源空间优化,提升土地利用规划和管理水平。由于土地利用空间格局的研究范畴尚不明晰,目前土地利用空间格局的研究对形状、斑块分布和结构等方面关注较少,缺乏对不同土地利用类型间相互关系的研究;同时,格局指标繁多且存在较大的相关性,如何建立指标与土地利用空间格局的对应关系值得进一步研究。本文在深刻理解土地利用空间格局内涵的基础上,将面积、形状和斑块分布总结为土地利用几何特征,将结构和多样性总结为土地利用类型特征,建立了土地利用空间格局刻画指标体系,利用模糊C均值聚类分析,明确了指标与空间格局间的对应关系。结果表明,中国土地利用几何特征可以划分为简单大斑块型、复杂大斑块型、复杂小斑块型、简单小斑块型和散布型五种,不同的几何特征反映了不同土地利用类型的面积、形状和斑块分布的特点,体现了区域土地利用类型的组合关系。2010年中国土地利用共存在61种不同的结构,但主要的结构类型仅有14种,结构特征具有明显的空间聚集性,体现了不同土地利用类型的空间分异性。中国土地利用多样性以3~5类为主,占比达66.69%,其特征总体上呈现“东北、东南高,西北低”的态势。该研究丰富了土地利用空间格局研究的理论体系,填补了中国土地利用整体空间格局刻画的空白。

关键词: 土地利用, 空间格局, 聚类分析, 中国

Abstract:

Understanding the evolving spatial pattern of land use is the basis of the theory and practice of land use/cover change (LUCC). It is helpful to optimize the use of land resources spatially and to improve the level of land use planning and management when the spatial patterns of land use are described effectively. At present, the commonalities in the scope of the spatial pattern of land use are still unclear, and research on the spatial pattern of land use has only recently begun to pay attention to the shape, patch distribution, structure, and relationships among different types of land use. In addition, the correlations among different pattern indicators have resulted in the redundancy in the pattern metrics. Further study is needed to establish the corresponding relationships between indicators and land use spatial patterns. This study summarized the area, shape, and patch distribution for land use maps as geometric characteristics, and summarized the structure and diversity as land use class characteristics. Based on the above conceptual model, an index system of land use spatial patterns was established. Then, the corresponding relationships between the indicators and the spatial patterns were established using fuzzy C-means clustering. The results indicated that the geometric characteristics of land use in China could be divided into five types: a simple large patch type, a complex large patch type, a complex small patch type, a simple small patch type, and a scattered type. Different geometric features reflected the characteristics of the area, the shape and the patch distribution and the combination of regional land use types. In 2010, there were 61 structures of land use in China, but a subset of 14 structures was the majority. The structural characteristics clustered in space and showed apparent spatial heterogeneity of different land use types. The diversity of land use in China was dominated by 3-5 categories, accounting for 66.69% of all the grids. The diversity over space was generally high in the northeast and the southeast, but low in the northwest. In summary, this study enriches the theoretical system of land use spatial pattern and fills a gap in the systematic description of the overall spatial patterns of China's land use.

Key words: land use, spatial pattern, cluster analysis, China