地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (1): 126-142.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202001010

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围填海影响下东海区主要海湾形态时空演变

李加林1,2,3, 王丽佳1   

  1. 1. 宁波大学地理与空间信息技术系,宁波 315211
    2. 宁波大学东海研究院,宁波 315211
    3. 宁波陆海国土空间利用与治理协同创新中心,宁波 315211
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-30 修回日期:2019-11-23 出版日期:2020-01-25 发布日期:2020-03-25
  • 作者简介:李加林(1973-), 男, 浙江台州人, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事海岸带开发与保护研究。E-mail: nbnj2001@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金委—浙江两化融合联合基金(U1609203);国家自然科学基金项目(41976209);国家社科基金项目(16ZDA050)

Spatial and temporal evolutions of the major bays in the East China Sea under the influence of reclamation

LI Jialin1,2,3, WANG Lijia1   

  1. 1. Department of Geography & Spatial Information Technology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, Zhejiang, China;
    2. Donghai Institute of Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, Zhejiang, China
    3. Collaborative Innovation Center for Land and Marine Spatial Utilization and Governance Research at Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211,Zhejiang, China
  • Received:2018-12-30 Revised:2019-11-23 Online:2020-01-25 Published:2020-03-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China-Zhejiang Joint Fund for the Integration of Industrialization and Informatization(U1609203);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41976209);National Social Science Foundation of China(16ZDA050)

摘要:

围填海影响下海湾形态变化能够深刻反映人类活动对海湾自然环境的影响程度,分析海湾形态变化对合理高效地利用与保护海湾资源具有重要意义。研究以东海区12个主要海湾(包括陆域与水域)为研究区,基于20世纪90年代以来6个时期的Landsat TM/OLI遥感影像数据,通过海湾岸线与湾面形态分析东海区主要海湾的变化特征,探讨围填海强度与海湾形态变化之间的相关性。主要结论为:① 1990—2015年,东海区主要海湾岸线总长度共波动增长66.65 km,2005—2010年间海湾开发最活跃,阶段内岸线增长量达38 km。岸线长度三沙湾最大(439 km),泉州湾最小(105 km);兴化湾增长最多(54.53 km),罗源湾缩短最多(25.75 km)。自然岸线与人工岸线长度此消彼长,岸线人工化程度不断加强,东海北部海湾岸线总长度大于南部海湾。② 1990—2015年,东海区海湾岸线共向海推进26.93 km,合1.08 km/a,在1995—2000年及2005—2010年间推进最多,分别达7.10 km和 6.00 km,在1990—1995年间推进量最小,为2.97 km。杭州湾(4.93 km)和兴化湾(4.15 km)岸线向海推进距离最长,厦门湾推进(0.55 km)最短;东海南部海湾岸线迁移量平缓,北部海湾则更为剧烈,是东海区岸线迁移变化的主体。③ 1990—2015年间东海区主要海湾水域总面积由初期的13.85 km2减少至12.29 km2,累积减少11.23 %,海湾形状不断向复杂化演变。其中杭州湾海湾水域面积减少量最多,达到0.726 km2,占研究区的46.69 %。空间上,北部海湾水域面积减少量更大,而南部海湾水域面积减小速率更快。④ 1990年以来,东海区主要海湾人工化指数平均值和岸线开发强度指数均有所上涨,21世纪以来的开发利用度显著提高。南部(闽)海湾的开发利用程度较北部(浙沪)更为深入,北部海湾开发强度的年际波动差异更大。海湾开发强度与海湾岸线长度、人工岸线长度、海湾形态指数呈正相关关系,与自然岸线长度、海湾水域面积呈负相关关系。当海湾开发强度增加时,同时段内海湾围填海活动的强度也显著增加。

关键词: 围填海, 海湾岸线, 海湾形态变化, 海湾开发, 东海区

Abstract:

The spatial pattern changes of bays under the influence of reclamation can profoundly reflect how human activities affect the natural environments, which is important to effectively protect and utilize bay resources. Based on 6 Landsat TM/OLI remote sensing images during 1990-2015, this study analyzed the variations of major bays from the coastline and bay surface morphology and explored the correlation between the reclamation intensity and spatial pattern changes for the 12 major bays in the East China Sea (ECS). The main conclusions include that: (1) the length of the main bay coastline in the East China Sea, from 1990 to 2015, increased by 66.65 km. The extensive coastline growth was found during 2005-2010 and the growth reached 38 km. Sansha Bay has the longest coastline (439 km) and the shortest (105 km) was found in Luoyuan Bay; Xinghua Bay experienced the largest coastline growth (54.53 km) in the past decades, and the least was in Luoyuan Bay (25.75 km). In general, the artificial coastline continued to increase and the degree of artificialization had been continuously strengthened. (2) The coastline of the bay continuously moved to the sea, with a distance of 26.93 km (1.08 km/a). The most significant seaward expansions were found in 1995-2000 and 2005-2010, reaching 7.10 km and 6.00 km, respectively. Hangzhou (4.93 km) and Xinghua bays (4.15 km) experienced the largest seaward expansion of coastline, while Xiamen Bay had the shortest (0.55 km). (3) The total area of the major bay waters decreased from 13.85 km2 in 1990 to 12.29 km2 in 2015 in the East China Sea, down by 11.23%. Additionally, the morphological indices of the bays showed a continuous rise trend, which indicates that spatial patterns were transformed to be more complicated. The largest reduction with water area was observed in the Hangzhou Bay (0.726 km2), accounting for 46.69% of the research area. (4) The indexes of artificiality and development intensity showed a continuous rise trend. The utilization degree in the southern part of the study area is higher than that of the northern part, and the interannual fluctuation of the development intensity in the north is much varied. In addition, the bay development is positively correlated with the length of the coastline, the length of the artificial coastline and the shape index of the bay, and negatively correlated with the length of the natural coastline and the area of the waters. As the development intensity increased, the intensity of reclamation activities increased significantly.

Key words: reclamation, bay coastline, bay morphological changes, bay exploitation, the East China Sea