地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (12): 2631-2645.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912015

• 资源环境与可持续发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

京津冀城市群虚拟水贸易的近远程分析

孙思奥1, 郑翔益2, 刘海猛1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 贵州大学管理学院,贵阳 550025
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-25 修回日期:2019-11-13 出版日期:2019-12-25 发布日期:2019-12-25
  • 作者简介:孙思奥(1983-), 女, 湖南津市人, 博士, 副研究员, 主要从事城市水文和水资源管理与政策相关研究。E-mail:suns@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41590842);国家自然科学基金项目(41601167);国家自然科学基金项目(41801164)

Local and distant virtual water trades in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region

SUN Si'ao1, ZHENG Xiangyi2, LIU Haimeng1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Business School, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
  • Received:2018-04-25 Revised:2019-11-13 Online:2019-12-25 Published:2019-12-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41590842);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41601167);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41801164)

摘要:

虚拟水贸易能重新分配区域间的水资源。在京津冀协同发展的背景下,厘清京津冀城市群与外部的虚拟水贸易及城市群内部的虚拟水流动,有助于深入理解该地区的水资源供需现状及问题,为制定虚拟水贸易相关策略、实现区域水资源优化配置、保障区域水资源安全提供决策支持。本文基于2010年全国区域间投入产出表,测算了京津冀城市群各省(市)水足迹及与全国各省域单元的虚拟水贸易量。从近远程视角定量评估城市群地区对内、外部水资源的依赖程度,并分析虚拟水贸易的距离特征。研究发现:① 京津冀城市群各省(市)各部门用水系数显现出差异性,农业部门用水强度最高,直接用水与完全用水系数分别超过300 m 3/万元和400 m 3/万元;② 京津冀城市群内部各省(市)人均消费水足迹差异大,北京、天津、河北的人均水足迹分别为405 m 3、565 m 3、191 m 3;③ 京津冀城市群的消费水足迹遍布全国各省域单元,近程水足迹与远程水足迹分别为91.4亿m 3、198.5亿m 3,其中,近程水足迹主要来源于本省(市),西部地区对远程水足迹的贡献最大;④ 京津冀城市群的虚拟水输入总体偏向来源于距离较近的省域单元,北京、天津、河北水足迹距离来源地的平均距离分别为1049 km、1297 km、688 km;⑤ 北京和天津为虚拟水贸易的净流入区,对外部水资源的依赖性强;河北为虚拟水贸易的净流出区,为京津冀城市群及其他地区供给水资源,虚拟水净流出进一步加剧了河北的水资源短缺。未来,受人口增长、经济发展等因素影响,京津冀城市群的水资源压力将进一步加剧,提高用水效率、升级产业结构、提倡低水足迹消费模式、实行虚拟水战略是实现京津冀城市群可持续发展的有效途径。

关键词: 京津冀城市群, 近远程, 虚拟水贸易, 水足迹, 水资源管理

Abstract:

Virtual water transfers can redistribute water resources among different regions, hence to reduce or aggregate water scarcity in one region. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which is located in the North China Plain, has long been suffered from water scarcity. Knowledge on virtual water trades within and beyond this region is vital for understanding water resources problems and making responding strategies. In this study, water footprints and virtual water in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei are computed based on the multi-regional input-output table and provincial water uses in China in 2010. Spatial patterns and characteristics of virtual water flows are analyzed, with an emphasis on separate accounting of local and external virtual water transfers. In addition, the relationships between virtual water transfers and distances from Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei to provinces where virtual water is from are examined. Main results include: (1) Water use intensities of different sectors in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei present a big variability. Agricultural water use intensity is the highest. (2) Per capita water footprints in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei present large difference, which are 405 m 3, 568 m 3 and 191 m 3, respectively. (3) Imported virtual water in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei come from different provinces all over China. Local and external water footprints are 9.14 billion m 3 and 19.85 billion m 3, respectively. The region contributing the largest share of external virtual water to Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is the western region in China. (4) Overall, virtual water inflows in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei tend to come from neighbouring provinces. Average distances of virtual water inflows in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei are 1049 km, 1297 km and 688 km, respectively. (5) Beijing and Tianjin import net virtual water, indicating that the socio-economic development in Beijing and Tianjin heavily relies on external water resources. Hebei exports net virtual water, providing water resources to Beijing, Tianjin and other provinces in China. Net virtual water export in Hebei aggregates local water scarcity. The results benefit policy implications on sustainable water resources management under the framework of virtual water trade. Solutions possibly relieving water scarcity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region include increasing water use efficiency, upgrading industrial structure, promoting low water footprint consumption mode, and implementing virtual water strategy.

Key words: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, local and external virtual water, virtual water trade, water footprint, water resources management