地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (12): 2560-2571.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912010

• 新型城镇化与乡村发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

城乡融合背景下乡村转型与可持续发展路径探析

曹智1,2, 李裕瑞1,2(), 陈玉福1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院精准扶贫评估研究中心,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-17 修回日期:2019-12-14 出版日期:2019-12-25 发布日期:2019-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 李裕瑞 E-mail:lyr2008@163.com
  • 作者简介:曹智(1989-), 男, 山东济南人, 助理研究员, 研究方向为土地利用与乡村发展。E-mail: caoz.14b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41931293);国家自然科学基金项目(41801175);中国博士后科学基金项目(2019T120128);中国博士后科学基金项目(2018M631558)

Approaches to rural transformation and sustainable development in the context of urban-rural integration

CAO Zhi1,2, LI Yurui1,2(), CHEN Yufu1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Center for Assessment and Research on Targeted Poverty Alleviation, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2019-10-17 Revised:2019-12-14 Online:2019-12-25 Published:2019-12-25
  • Contact: LI Yurui E-mail:lyr2008@163.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41931293);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41801175);Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China(2019T120128);Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China(2018M631558)

摘要:

探究乡村转型发展规律对于系统认识乡村发展阶段、研判乡村发展趋势、明确乡村可持续路径、促进乡村转型与振兴具有重要意义。首先基于马斯洛需求层次理论、产业结构演变理论、区域空间结构理论等演绎乡村转型发展阶段,然后结合典型乡村发展历程分析进行实证检验,进而探讨对于新时期乡村可持续发展的启示。研究结果:① 乡村转型发展在理论上可分为4个阶段,一是生产力均匀分布下以实现温饱需求为目标的土地整治促增产阶段,二是城乡联系增强下以改善生活水平为目标的农业结构调整促增收阶段,三是区域联系增强下以提升生活质量为目标的产业结构调整促致富阶段,四是城乡互动融合下以城乡等值为目标的公服设施建设促均等阶段。② 典型发达乡村的发展历程在一定程度上印证了乡村转型发展阶段特征。③ 因资源基础、区位条件、市场规模、发展主动性等因素的差异,乡村实际发展过程可能存在阶段的跃迁或并行的现象。根据发展过程中不同主体发挥作用的变化,每个阶段又可细分为初始阶段、过渡阶段和成熟阶段。④ 基于乡村转型发展规律分析,城乡融合背景下不同类型地区乡村可持续发展路径可分为土地整治集聚路径、特色产业发展路径、产业平台集散路径和社区功能集约路径等4类。

关键词: 乡村振兴战略, 乡村地域系统, 乡村转型, 乡村发展, 城乡融合

Abstract:

Exploring the evolution rules of rural transformation is significant for systematically understanding stages of rural development, judging trends of rural development, determining paths of rural sustainable development and promoting rural vitalization. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, industrial structure evolution theory, and regional spatial structure theory, this paper deduced the evolutionary stages of rural transformation. The evolutionary stages were verified by analysis of the development process of typical villages. Further, this paper explored the implication for rural sustainable development in the new era. The results showed that: (1) Evolutionary process of rural transformation included four stages. The first was the cropland-engineering stage, aiming at realizing the need for food and clothing under the uniform distribution of productivity. The second was the agricultural structure adjustment stage, aiming at increasing income under the intensifying urban-rural relationship status. The third was the industrial restructuring, aiming at improving the quality of life under the strengthening of regional linkages. The fourth was the stage of promoting the equalization of public service facilities with the goal of urban-rural equivalence under the urban-rural integration. (2) The development course of typical developed villages confirmed the evolution rules of rural transformation to some extent. (3) In practice, the evolutionary process of rural development presented skip or parallel phenomena because of regional differentiation of resources, location, market size, and willingness. According to the changes of the roles of different groups in development course, each stage could be subdivided into initial stage, transition stage, and maturation stage. (4) Based on the analysis of evolutionary rules of rural transformation, the paths of rural sustainable development in different types of region included land consolidation and agglomeration path, specialty industrial development path, industrial platform for collection and distribution path, and community function intensification path in the context of urban-rural integration.

Key words: rural vitalization strategy, rural territorial system, rural transformation, rural development, urban-rural integration