地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (10): 1980-2000.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201910003

• 经济地理学格局演变 • 上一篇    下一篇

1978年改革开放以来中国旅游业发展的地理格局

张城铭1,3,翁时秀1,3,保继刚2,3()   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275
    2. 中山大学旅游学院,广州 510275
    3. 中山大学旅游发展与规划研究中心,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-29 修回日期:2019-06-24 出版日期:2019-10-25 发布日期:2019-10-29
  • 通讯作者: 保继刚 E-mail:eesbjg@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:张城铭(1989-), 男, 河北邯郸人, 博士生, 研究方向为精英景观与旅游地演化。E-mail: zhangchm@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(No.41571137)

The geographical pattern of China's tourism development since the reform and opening-up in 1978

ZHANG Chengming1,3,WENG Shixiu1,3,BAO Jigang2,3()   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    3. Centre for Tourism Planning & Research, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
  • Received:2018-10-29 Revised:2019-06-24 Online:2019-10-25 Published:2019-10-29
  • Contact: BAO Jigang E-mail:eesbjg@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(No.41571137)

摘要:

运用基尼系数、首位度分析、热点分析和Pearson相关分析,从全国和地区两种尺度对1978年改革开放40年来中国旅游业发展格局进行了研究。分析发现:① 旅游业发展格局的整体特征是东高西低,南高北低;入境旅游长期呈现极化分布的特征,广东是入境旅游的“极核”,京—沪处于第二梯队,甘—新—青—藏—宁发展滞后;国内旅游经历了极化分布到均衡分布的过程。② 旅游业发展格局阶段性特征:现代旅游起始阶段——入境旅游极化严重,广东地位举足轻重;国内旅游培育阶段——入境旅游空间结构未变(广东第一,北京第二,上海第三),国内旅游总体极化分布;旅游大发展阶段——北京入境旅游地位逐渐被上海取代,国内旅游总体均衡分布;旅游新常态阶段——入境旅游空间结构改善,国内旅游第一层级省份明显增加,出境旅游稳步快速增长,北京、上海引领出境旅游人均消费。③ 影响中国旅游业发展的因素比较多元:政策、管理制度、旅游需求、旅游吸引物、经济水平、消费水平、产业发展、投资状况、交通条件、食宿服务、中介服务和对外开放程度等因素对中国国内旅游和入境旅游均有不同程度的影响。

关键词: 改革开放, 旅游业发展格局, 旅游发展阶段, 影响因素, 中国

Abstract:

China's tourism development has made significant progress since the reform and opening-up policy officially launched in 1978. Now it is high time to conduct research on how and why the geographical pattern of China's tourism development has evolved in the previous four decades on national and regional scales. Employing grounded viable data sets (namely the inbound tourism data from 1979 to 2017 and the domestic tourism data from 1991 to 2017) and multiple vibrant data analysis approaches (including the Gini coefficient, the primacy index analysis, the hot spot analysis and the Pearson correlation analysis), this paper can draw three findings. (1) China's tourism can present a distribution pattern of "high in the eastern and southern parts, but low in the western and northern parts." Meanwhile, China's inbound tourism development has long been polarized, Guangdong is the "core" of inbound tourism, Beijing and Shanghai belong to the second tier, while Gansu, Xinjiang, Qinghai, Tibet and Ningxia lag behind. Meanwhile, the domestic tourism development has transferred from polarization to equilibrium distribution. (2) Different stages of China's tourism development exhibit various features and characteristics. Specifically, at the so-called initial modern tourism stage, inbound tourism was subject to extreme polarization, with Guangdong province taking a fatal and strategic role. Whereas, at the domestic tourism cultivating stage, the domestic tourism development in this nation was polarized spatially, though the landscape of the inbound tourism was hardly transformed (Guangdong the first, Beijing the second and Shanghai the third). When it came to the rapid development stage, Beijing was gradually surpassed by Shanghai in the realm of inbound tourism. In contrast, domestic tourism development was reasonably balanced. By the new normal stage, the landscape of the inbound tourism improved, and the first tier provinces began to take an increasing share in terms of domestic tourist reception capacity. Moreover, China's outbound tourism increased steadily at this stage, with Beijing and Shanghai playing leading roles in the citizens' overseas spending. (3) This research has identified multiple factors underlying the inbound and domestic tourism development in China, including policies, management systems, tourism demand, tourism attractions, economic level, consumption level, industrial development, investment status, traffic conditions, accommodation services, intermediary services and degree of openness.

Key words: reform and opening-up, tourism development spatial pattern, tourism development stages, influencing factors, China