地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (10): 1962-1979.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201910002

• 经济地理学格局演变 • 上一篇    下一篇

1978年改革开放以来中国工业地理格局演变

贺灿飞1,2,胡绪千1,2   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
    2. 北京大学—林肯研究院 城市发展与土地政策研究中心,北京 100871;
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-16 修回日期:2019-07-08 出版日期:2019-10-25 发布日期:2019-10-29
  • 作者简介:贺灿飞(1972-), 男, 江西永新人, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事经济地理、产业与区域经济研究。E-mail: hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(No.41731278);国家杰出青年科学基金项目(No.41425001)

Evolution of Chinese industrial geography since reform and opening-up

HE Canfei1,2,HU Xuqian1,2   

  1. 1. School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2. Peking University-Lincoln Institute Center for Urban Development and Land Policy, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2018-10-16 Revised:2019-07-08 Online:2019-10-25 Published:2019-10-29
  • Supported by:
    Major Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China(No.41731278);National Natural Science Funds for Distinguished Young Scholars(No.41425001)

摘要:

回顾改革开放40年,在深刻的制度变革环境下,中国工业实现快速发展,中国工业地理格局也在经济转型中得到重塑。中国工业总体上经历了从内陆扩散到沿海地区集聚,再向内陆转移的过程。但不同类型产业地理格局及变化受制于不同力量,显现出一定的行业差异性。与改革开放之初相比,中国工业在不同地理尺度上呈现出明显的集聚趋势,但集聚程度较欧盟和美国低。产业的聚集与分散驱动不同尺度下的产业迁移,导致区域产业频繁进入和退出,促使地方产业呈现多样化态势,推动中国工业地理格局演变。从经济转型的视角出发,改革开放可概括为市场化、全球化和分权化三个过程,这些过程创造市场力量,激活地方力量,引入全球力量,共同重塑了中国工业地理格局。

关键词: 改革开放, 工业地理格局, 产业集聚, 产业迁移, 产业演化

Abstract:

Looking back on the 40 years of reform and opening-up, Chinese industry has achieved rapid growth and development, and Chinese industrial geography has been profoundly reshaped under the profound institutional evolution environment. Chinese industry has undergone a process of spreading in the inland to agglomeration in the coastal areas and then dispersion towards the inland again. However, the geographical pattern of different types of industries is influenced by different forces, leading to differences in the spatial restructuring process. Since the beginning of reform and opening-up in 1978, Chinese industries have been increasingly more agglomerated at different geographical scales, but still much lower than the European Union and the United States. Industrial agglomeration and decentralization drive industrial migration at different scales. In spite of the heterogeneity of industries, industrial migration has generally changed from a scattered layout to an agglomeration pattern in coastal areas; and in recent years, industrial migration has gradually shifted from developed eastern provinces to central provinces, indicating a new round of industrial migration. Remarkable regional industrial entries and exits have promoted the evolution and diversification of local industries. Overall, Chinese industrial space tends to be more complex and concentrated, the links between industries are further strengthened with a more obvious "path dependence" characteristics of industrial evolution in coastal areas. Theoretically, Chinese economic reform is not only the reform of development mode, but also the reform of institutions in essence. The fundamental triple process of marketization, globalization and decentralization has introduced market forces, local forces, and global forces to reshape Chinese industrial geography. And for the study of Chinese industrial geography, besides continuing to summarize patterns and dynamics from multiple perspectives, it is necessary to reveal the deep-level mechanism of the evolution of industrial geography pattern through phenomena, and evaluate the multiple effects of the reshaping of industrial geographical pattern systematically.

Key words: reform and opening-up, industrial geography, industrial agglomeration, industrial transfer, industrial evolution