地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (10): 1941-1961.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201910001

• 经济地理学格局演变 •    下一篇

1978年改革开放以来中国交通地理格局演变与规律

金凤君1,2,陈卓1,2,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    3. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院,北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-09 修回日期:2019-08-22 出版日期:2019-10-25 发布日期:2019-10-29
  • 作者简介:金凤君(1961-), 男, 内蒙古赤峰人, 博导, 教授, 主要从事区域经济学与经济地理学研究。E-mail: jinfj@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项A类(No.XDA19040403);国家自然科学资金项目(No.41771134)

Evolution of transportation in China since reform and opening-up: Patterns and principles

JIN Fengjun1,2,CHEN Zhuo1,2,3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2018-11-09 Revised:2019-08-22 Online:2019-10-25 Published:2019-10-29
  • Supported by:
    Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(No.XDA19040403);National Natural Science Foundation of China(No.41771134)

摘要:

1978年改革开放以来,中国交通地理格局发生了历史性变化,理解其演变特征与规律对未来的交通建设与国土开发具有重要的启示意义。在系统梳理中国交通建设与发展历程的基础上,利用大数据和GIS等分析方法,探讨了国家交通地理格局的演变特征与空间效应,并从演进阶段、空间结构与秩序等视角系统归纳了中国交通地理格局演化的基本规律。研究发现,当前中国的交通建设已开始进入以质量提升为目标的新阶段,建设模式由早期资本驱动的“规模扩张型”过渡为创新驱动的“质量提升型”,发展方向从优先发展向综合协调发展转变;交通网络的快速建设和扩展改变了时间与空间的关系,其所营造的空间收敛与空间优势格局,与经济社会空间布局形成了耦合效应,持续推动经济社会空间结构演进,传统以发展轴线为中心的国土开发结构将逐渐转变为以大都市和城市群为中心的网络化国土开发结构;交通地理格局的演化具有显著的阶段性规律,中国当前处于系统结构完善阶段向级联秩序分异阶段过渡的时期,经济社会空间形态从轴线结构向轴—辐结构转变,初步形成了级序有致的网络体系;随着交通网络的不断成熟,宏观尺度上的各类功效空间结构与级联秩序将逐步趋向成熟与稳定,最终达到相对平衡的状态。

关键词: 交通地理格局, 空间效应, 空间级序, 演化规律, 中国

Abstract:

Since the reform and opening-up in 1978, historic changes have been seen in the transportation geography pattern of China. Understanding its evolutionary characteristics and regularity is significant and meaningful for future transportation construction and territory development. This paper reviewed the process of transportation construction in China and investigated the evolutionary characteristics and spatial effects of transportation geography pattern with the technologies in big data mining and GIS. In addition, the regular rules of transportation geography evolution from the aspects of stages, structures, and orders are systematically analyzed. The investigation showed that China's transportation construction has entered the stage of quality improvement. The construction mode has upgraded from scale-expanding driven by investment to quality-improving driven by innovation. The development direction has changed from "prior development" to "integrated coordinated development". The rapid growth and development of transportation networks have significantly influenced the relationship between time and space. The resulting spatial convergence and superiority pattern are coupled with economic-social distribution, which facilitates the development of the economic-social spatial structure. Consequently, territory development that is traditionally centralized by corridors has changed into the networked mode centered on metropolises and metropolitan areas. In brief, the transportation geography pattern is of evolutionary principles. China has been evolving from the stage of ordered structure to the stage of cascade-order structure. Simultaneously, the economic-social pattern has changed from the axis structure to the hub-and-spoke structure with a preliminary ordered network. As transportation networks grow and expand, China's functional spatial structure and ordered network will be gradually stabilized and balanced.

Key words: transport geographic pattern, spatial effect, spatial cascade, evolutionary principle, China