地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (7): 1420-1437.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201907011

• 生态系统 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于景观生态风险评价的宁江流域景观格局优化

李青圃1,张正栋1(),万露文2,杨传训3,张杰1,叶晨1,陈裕婵1   

  1. 1.华南师范大学地理科学学院,广州 510631
    2.密歇根州立大学地球与环境科学系,美国 东兰辛 48823
    3.广州地理研究所,广州 510070
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-07 修回日期:2019-05-18 出版日期:2019-07-25 发布日期:2019-07-23
  • 通讯作者: 张正栋 E-mail:zhangzdedu@163.com
  • 作者简介:李青圃(1993-), 女, 河南南阳人, 硕士生, 主要从事景观格局与生态水文研究。E-mail: 2016022031@m.scnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471147)

Landscape pattern optimization in Ningjiang River Basin based on landscape ecological risk assessment

LI Qingpu1,ZHANG Zhengdong1(),WAN Luwen2,YANG Chuanxun3,ZHANG Jie1,YE Chen1,CHEN Yuchan1   

  1. 1.School of Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    2.Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State Universtiy, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA
    3.Guangzhou Institute of Geography, Guangzhou 510070, China
  • Received:2018-03-07 Revised:2019-05-18 Online:2019-07-25 Published:2019-07-23
  • Contact: ZHANG Zhengdong E-mail:zhangzdedu@163.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Foundation of China(41471147)

摘要:

流域景观生态风险受到多源因素的综合作用,识别流域景观生态风险是实现景观格局优化的基础与前提,景观格局优化是应对生态风险的有效手段。以宁江流域为研究区,采用空间主成分分析法,从“自然—人类社会—景观格局”3个维度对流域景观生态风险进行综合评价,基于景观生态风险评价结果,构建累积阻力表面,利用最小累积阻力模型进行了流域景观格局的优化。结果表明:人类社会和景观格局因素对综合风险影响更为强烈,地形和距水体距离等自然因素对综合生态风险影响较弱;宁江流域整体景观生态风险偏大,较高景观生态风险区域位于流域西南部,面积为523.99 km 2,占流域面积的36.06%;识别出流域生态源地为面积大于50 km 2的林地和面积大于0.2 km 2的水体。研究构建了15条生态廊道,一级生态廊道长度大于30000 m,二级生态廊道介于10000~30000 m之间,三级生态廊道长度在10000 m以内;识别了19个生态节点,形成了多层次生态网络。通过对比研究区景观格局优化前后的连通度发现,优化后流域整体景观格局连通度得到明显提升。

关键词: 景观生态风险评价, 景观格局优化, 空间主成分分析, 最小累积阻力模型, 宁江流域

Abstract:

The ecological risks facing the landscape in the Ningjiang River Basin are influenced by multiple parameters. Landscape optimization is an effective way to assess the detrimental effects on the ecosystem. In this study, an integrated "natural-social-landscape" landscape ecological risk assessment system was produced, and the landscape ecological risk classification of the Ningjiang River Basin was based on spatial principal component analysis. Ecological resistance surfaces were constructed using the results of the landscape ecological risk analysis. The landscape resistance surfaces were produced based on the minimum cumulative resistance model (MCR). The results show that human activity and landscape patterns had a more significant influence on the final risk assessment than natural factors do, such as terrain and distance from water. The landscape ecological risk was generally high, and the high ecology risk region covered 523.99 km 2, constituting the largest area and accounting for 36.06% of the research area. With the aim of decreasing the landscape ecological risk of the Ningjiang River Basin, areas of forestland greater than 50 km 2 and areas of water greater than 0.2 km 2 were selected as the eco-sources. Using interlinked points, lines and surfaces, a regional ecological network was constructed out of 15 ecological corridors. The length of the first level corridors was greater than 30000 m, the length of second level corridors was between 10000 m and 30000 m, and the length of the third level corridors was less than 10000 m. A total of 19 ecological nodes were produced. The landscape connectivity was significantly improved following landscape pattern optimization. The results of this study may help improve the ecological stability level in the study area and provide a scientific basis for both landscape ecological risk assessment and landscape pattern optimization research.

Key words: landscape ecological risk assessment, landscape pattern optimization, spatial principal component analysis, minimum cumulative resistance model, Ningjiang River Basin