地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (7): 1333-1344.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201907005

• 气候变化与地表过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

1970-2016年冈底斯山冰川变化

刘娟1,姚晓军1(),刘时银2,3,郭万钦2,许君利4   

  1. 1.西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院,兰州 730070
    2.中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院 冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室,兰州 730000
    3.云南大学国际河流与生态安全研究院,昆明 650091
    4.盐城师范学院,盐城 224051
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-14 修回日期:2019-05-01 出版日期:2019-07-25 发布日期:2019-07-23
  • 通讯作者: 姚晓军 E-mail:yaoxj_nwnu@163.com
  • 作者简介:刘娟(1993-), 女, 甘肃定西人, 硕士生, 研究方向为环境科学与地理信息系统。E-mail: liujuan_qx@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41561016);国家自然科学基金项目(41861013);国家自然科学基金项目(41801052);科技部科技基础性工作专项(2013FY111400);西北师范大学青年教师科研能力提升计划项目(NWNU-LKQN-14-4)

Glacier changes in the Gangdisê Mountains from 1970 to 2016

LIU Juan1,YAO Xiaojun1(),LIU Shiyin2,3,GUO Wanqin2,XU Junli4   

  1. 1.College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
    2.State Key Laboratory of Cryosphere Sciences, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
    3.Institute of International Rivers and Eco-Security, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China
    4.Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng 224051, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2018-05-14 Revised:2019-05-01 Online:2019-07-25 Published:2019-07-23
  • Contact: YAO Xiaojun E-mail:yaoxj_nwnu@163.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41561016);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41861013);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41801052);National Basic Work Program of MST(2013FY111400);Youth Scholar Scientific Capability Promoting Project of Northwest Normal University(NWNU-LKQN-14-4)

摘要:

基于修订后的中国两次冰川编目数据及2015-2016年Landsat OLI遥感影像,对冈底斯山1970-2016年的冰川时空变化特征进行分析,并利用相应时段的气温和降水数据,对冰川变化原因进行探讨,为全面认识冈底斯山在气候变暖背景下冰川的响应规律及区域水资源合理利用提供科学依据。结果表明:① 2015-2016年冈底斯山共有冰川3953条,面积1306.45 km 2,冰储量约58.16 km 3;冰川数量以面积< 0.5 km 2的冰川为主,面积则以介于0.1~5 km 2的冰川为主。② 1970-2016年冈底斯山冰川面积共减少854.05 km 2(-39.53%),冰川面积变化相对速率高达-1.09%/a,消融期气温升高是导致该山区冰川退缩的最主要原因。与中国西部其他山系冰川变化相比,冈底斯山是冰川退缩最为强烈的地区,且近年来冰川退缩呈加快趋势。③ 冈底斯山冰川面积减少主要集中在海拔5600~6100 m之间,海拔6500 m以上区域基本没有变化。除南朝向和东南朝向外,冈底斯山其他朝向冰川数量和面积均呈减少趋势,其中北朝向冰川面积减少最多,西北朝向冰川面积变化最快。④ 冈底斯山冰川面积变化自西向东呈加快趋势,其中东段冰川面积变化相对速率高达-1.72%/a,中段次之(-1.67%/a),西段仅为-0.83%/a。

关键词: 冰川变化, 冰川编目, 气候变化, 冈底斯山

Abstract:

Based on the revised First and Second Chinese Glacier Inventory and Landsat OLI remote sensing images during 2015-2016, we analyzed the spatial-temporal variation characteristics of glaciers in the Gangdisê Mountains during 1970-2016. The results of this study provide a scientific basis for the rational use of water resources in this region. The results showed that there were 3953 glaciers with a total area of 1306.45 km 2 and ice volume of ~58.16 km 3 in the Gangdisê Mountains during 2015-2016. The glaciers in sizes of 0.1-5 km 2 and < 0.5 km 2 had the largest area and the greatest number of glaciers in the Gangdisê Mountains, respectively. In the past five decades, the area of glaciers decreased by 854.05 km 2 (-1.09%/a), accounting for 39.53% of the total area of glaciers in the region in 1970. The increase of temperature in the ablation period was the most important cause of glacier retreat. Compared to other mountains in western China, the Gangdisê Mountains was the region with the strongest glacier retreat and had an accelerating tendency in recent years. The decrease of glacier area was mainly concentrated at elevations of 5600-6100 m a.s.l. and there was no change in elevation above 6500 m a.s.l. in the Gangdisê Mountains. Except for the south and southeast orientations, the number and area of glaciers were decreasing in all the orientations. Specifically, the north orientation suffered the largest area loss of glaciers and the northwest orientation witnessed the fastest retreat of glacier area. A significant feature of spatial variation showed that the rate of glacier retreat was faster from west to east in the Gangdisê Mountains. The relative change of glacier rate in the eastern section was high at -1.72%/a, followed by the middle section (-1.67%/a), and that in the western section was only -0.83%/a.

Key words: glacier change, glacier inventory, climate change, Gangdisê Mountains;