地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (5): 1011-1024.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201905013

• 土地利用与生态系统服务 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国小城镇镇区土地利用结构特征

赵鹏军,吕迪   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院 城市与交通规划研究中心,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-16 修回日期:2019-02-14 出版日期:2019-05-25 发布日期:2019-05-24
  • 作者简介:赵鹏军(1975-), 男, 教授, 博士生导师, 研究方向为城市与交通规划。E-mail: pengjun. zhao@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571147)

Characteristics of land use structure in small towns of China:Empirical evidences from 121 townships

ZHAO Pengjun,LYU Di   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, The Centre for Urban Planning and Transport Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2018-04-16 Revised:2019-02-14 Online:2019-05-25 Published:2019-05-24
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41571147)

摘要:

小城镇镇区土地利用结构是小城镇社会经济发展的基本空间映射,是小城镇规划管理的关键问题之一,合理的空间结构能够促进小城镇功能的发挥和用地效益的提升。当前该领域的研究主要侧重某一区域或者某一类型的研究,全国层面的调查研究较少,造成当前理论研究结论的普适性和可推广性较低。采用2016年住房和城乡建设部全国121个镇的调查数据,对中国小城镇镇区土地利用结构特征进行深入分析并揭示其特征形成机制。研究发现:① 由于镇区人口少、规模差异小,不同人口规模小城镇之间的土地利用结构有差异,但是不突出。② 多数小城镇受镇区产业空心化影响,用地结构的居住服务功能较为显著。③ 小城镇镇区用地结构与区域经济发展水平、工业化发展水平密切相关,经济发展水平高的地区,工业用地占比高。④ 受大城市辐射和虹吸作用影响,近郊小城镇土地利用结构的城市化现象明显。⑤ 土地所有制与用地结构密切相关,国有土地占比高的镇,公共设施用地比例高。本研究对于丰富和完善中国小城镇理论研究具有重要的理论价值,对于指导小城镇规划建设具有重要的实践价值。

关键词: 小城镇, 土地利用, 土地利用结构, 中国

Abstract:

Land use structure is one of the fundamental spatial features of socioeconomic development. It is also a key issue of urban planning and management in small towns because proper land use structure is related to the improvement of urban function and land use efficiency. The existing literature on land use structure in townships of China is dominated by the studies which either focus on a given region or one certain type of townships, while a nation-wide study is missed. As a result, a generalized knowledge of land use structure in townships remain scarce. This paper aims to fill the research gap. Using the data of 121 townships from a survey conducted under the leadership of the Ministry of Housing and Urban & Rural Development, the paper analyzes the characteristics of land use structure and its mechanisms in townships in China. The results of analysis show that: (1) There is a small variation in land use structure between the townships due to a small size of total population and slight difference in population size between them; (2) Residential land use occupies a high proportion of the total area of land use in most townships due to industrial hollowing-out; (3) Land use structure is significantly related with industrialization and economic growth, and the higher level of economic growth, the higher proportion of industrial land use; (4) Land use structure in the townships which are located near to the large cities shows a clear trend of urbanization-featured land use due to the spillover effects and siphonic effects from these large cities; (5) Land use structure in the townships is obviously affected by land ownership and a higher proportion of state-owned land is related with a higher level of land use for public service facilities. The findings of this paper would have important theoretical values of enriching the existing literature and practical values of guiding urban planning and construction in townships of China.

Key words: small town, land use, land use structure, China