地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (5): 975-991.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201905011

• 气候变化与地表过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原西部、南部和东北部边界地区天然水的水化学性质及其成因

田原1,2,余成群1(),查欣洁2,3,高星3,于明寨4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室 西藏拉萨农田生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    4. 西藏自治区农牧科学院农业研究所,拉萨 850002
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-15 修回日期:2018-10-15 出版日期:2019-05-25 发布日期:2019-05-24
  • 通讯作者: 余成群 E-mail:yucq@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:田原(1991-), 男, 陕西西安人, 博士生, 主要从事西藏水环境与健康研究。E-mail: tiany. 13s@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    西藏重点研发与转化计划(XZ201901NB08);西藏科技重大专项(XZ201901NA03);西藏科技重大专项(XZ201801NA02)

Hydrochemical characteristics and factors controlling of natural water in the western, southern, and northeastern border areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

TIAN Yuan1,2,YU Chengqun1(),ZHA Xinjie2,3,GAO Xing3,YU Mingzhai4   

  1. 1. Lhasa National Ecological Research Station, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modelling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    4. Research Institute of Agriculture, Tibet Academy of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Sciences, Lhasa 850002, China
  • Received:2018-05-15 Revised:2018-10-15 Online:2019-05-25 Published:2019-05-24
  • Contact: YU Chengqun E-mail:yucq@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    Key R&D and Transformation Program of Tibet(XZ201901NB08);Major Science and Technology Project of Tibet(XZ201901NA03);Major Science and Technology Project of Tibet(XZ201801NA02)

摘要:

特殊的地理和人文环境致使青藏高原天然水拥有独特的水化学性质并保存着较完整的原生状态,但随着人类活动强度的持续增大,可能导致当地水环境及水化学性质发生改变。通过对青藏高原存在人类活动的西部、南部和东北部边界地区进行水样采集、分析与测定,并探讨了当地天然水水化学性质的区域差异及其成因规律。结果表明:青藏高原不同边界地区天然水的物理性质、水化学性质和成因均存在差异,这些差异主要是地理环境、地质条件等综合作用的结果;水样pH的平均值为7.75,总溶解固体(TDS)的均值为171 mg/L,总硬度(TH)的均值为168 mg/L,总体来看水质较好,大部分能够满足国家和世界卫生组织(WHO)生活饮用水卫生标准,适宜饮用;水样中Ca 2+和Mg 2+为主要阳离子,HCO3 -和SO4 2-为主要的阴离子,主要由碳酸盐的风化和蒸发岩的溶解共同控制且碳酸盐岩风化的过程更为强烈;各边界地区天然水中的生物源物质均远低于国家和WHO标准,表明目前这些地区受人类活动的影响仍较小。

关键词: 青藏高原边界地区, 天然水, 水化学性质, 成因机制

Abstract:

The special geographic and human environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has created the unique hydrochemical characteristics of the region's natural water, which has been preserved in a completely natural state. However, as the intensity of human activities in the region continued to increase, the water environment and hydrochemical characteristics on the plateau have changed. In this study, we collected, analyzed, and measured water samples in the western, southern, and northeastern border areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where human activities are ongoing, and the regional differences and factors controlling them were investigated. The key results were obtained as follows. (1) There were differences in the physical properties and hydrochemical characteristics, and their controlling factors in the different boundary areas of this plateau. These differences were mainly caused by the effects of the geographical environment and geological conditions. (2) The average pH of the water samples was 7.75, the average total dissolved solid (TDS) content was 171 mg/L, and the average hardness (TH) content was 168 mg/L. Overall, the water quality was good and suitable for drinking, with most samples meeting national and WHO drinking water standards. (3) The main cations were Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ in water samples, while HCO3 - and SO4 2- were the main anions. The chemical properties of water were mainly controlled by the weathering of carbonates and the dissolution of evaporative rocks, with the weathering of carbonate rocks being most influential. (4) The biological quality indicators of natural water in the border areas was far superior to national and WHO standards, which indicated that these areas were rarely affected by human activities.

Key words: border area of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, natural water, hydrochemical characteristics, controlling factors