地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (5): 875-888.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201905003

• 气候变化与地表过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

秦岭—大巴山高分辨率气温和降水格点数据集的建立及其对区域气候的指示

陆福志1,鹿化煜1,2()   

  1. 1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210023
    2. 江苏省气候变化协同创新中心,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-17 修回日期:2019-01-22 出版日期:2019-05-25 发布日期:2019-05-24
  • 通讯作者: 鹿化煜 E-mail:huayulu@nju.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:陆福志(1993-), 男, 云南富宁人, 博士生, 主要从事地表过程和古气候研究。E-mail: geolfz@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFA0600503);国家重点研发计划(2016YFE0109500);国家自然科学基金项目(41690111)

A high-resolution grid dataset of air temperature and precipitation for Qinling-Daba Mountains in central China and its implications for regional climate

LU Fuzhi1,LU Huayu1,2()   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Climate Change, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2018-01-17 Revised:2019-01-22 Online:2019-05-25 Published:2019-05-24
  • Contact: LU Huayu E-mail:huayulu@nju.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key R&D Program of China(2016YFA0600503);National Key R&D Program of China(2016YFE0109500);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41690111)

摘要:

本文建立了秦岭—大巴山高分辨率(~29 m×29 m)的气候格点数据集,包括逐月气温和降水、年均温和年降水、春夏秋冬气温和降水。空间插值方法采用国际上较为先进的ANUSPLIN软件内置的薄盘光滑样条函数,以经度、纬度和海拔为独立变量。空间插值结果与流行的WorldClim 2.0气候格点数据集具有一致性,但是比后者更精确、分辨率更高、细节更突出。本文揭示和证实:秦岭南麓是最冷月气温的0 ℃分界线。秦岭—大巴山气温具有明显的垂直地带性。6月气温直减率最大,为0.61 ℃/100 m;12月气温直减率最小,为0.38 ℃/100 m;年均气温直减率为0.51 ℃/100 m。夏季和秋季降水从西南向东北递减,强降水中心出现在大巴山西南坡。冬季降水从东南向西北递减。大巴山是年降水1000 mm分界线,夏季降水500 mm分界线;秦岭是年降水800 mm分界线,夏季降水400 mm分界线。与大尺度大气环流对比揭示:秦岭—大巴山气温和降水空间分布主要受到东亚季风和地形因子的控制。本文进一步明确了秦岭和大巴山的气候意义:大巴山主要阻挡夏季风北上,影响降水空间分布;秦岭主要阻挡冬季风南下,影响冬季气温空间分布。本文建立的高分辨率气候格点数据集,加深了对区域气候的认识,并将有多方面的用途。

关键词: 秦岭, 大巴山, 气温, 降水, 格点数据, 空间插值, ANUSPLIN, 东亚季风

Abstract:

In this study, we developed a high-resolution grid dataset of air temperature and precipitation for the Qinling-Daba Mountains in central China, which includes monthly precipitation and temperature, seasonal precipitation and temperature, annual precipitation and temperature. Spatial interpolation was performed using thin-plate smoothing spline in the software ANUSPLIN, with latitude, longitude and elevation as independent variables. Our dataset is consistent with the widely-used WorldClim 2.0 dataset, but has more accuracy, because it is based on a larger number of meteorological stations and higher-resolution elevation data. Our results show that the southern foot of Qinling Mountains is the 0 ℃ isothermal line in the coldest month (January). The Qinling-Daba Mountains has obvious vertical temperature zones. The maximum temperature lapse rate occurs in June, which is 0.61 ℃ per 100 m, while the minimum temperature lapse rate is 0.38 ℃ per 100 m, occurring in December. The annual mean temperature lapse rate is 0.51 ℃ per 100 m. Both summer and autumn precipitations decrease from southwest to northeast, with heavy rainfall center located on the southwestern slope of the Daba Mountains, while winter precipitation decreases from southeast to northwest. The Daba Mountains is the 1000 mm isohyetal line of annual precipitation and 500 mm isohyetal line of summer precipitation, while the Qinling Mountains is the 800 mm isohyetal line of annual precipitation and 400 mm isohyetal line of summer precipitation. Comparison with large-scale atmospheric circulation indicates that the spatial distributions of air temperature and precipitation in the Qinling-Daba Mountains are mainly controlled by the East Asian monsoon and topography. In summer, the Daba Mountains prevents the northward penetration of East Asian summer monsoon and therefore influences the spatial distribution of precipitation. In winter, the Qinling Mountains prevents the southward penetration of East Asian winter monsoon and therefore influences the spatial distribution of air temperature. In summary, our high-resolution grid dataset contributes to a better understanding of regional climate and will have many applications in future researches.

Key words: Qinling Mountains, Daba Mountains, air temperature, precipitation, grid dataset, interpolation, ANUSPLIN, East Asian monsoon