地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (4): 770-779.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201904011

• 地缘政治与文化旅游地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

国家统一的地理学解释——以东西德统一为例

何金廖1,2(), GEBHARDT Hans3, 黄贤金4, 曾刚1,2   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心,上海 200062
    2. 华东师范大学城市发展研究院,上海 200062
    3. 德国海德堡大学地理研究所,德国海德堡 69120
    4. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210093
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-11 修回日期:2019-03-11 出版日期:2019-04-25 发布日期:2019-04-23
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:何金廖(1983-), 男, 湖南邵阳人, 研究员, 博士生导师, 主要从事地理理论、城市与经济地理研究。E-mail: jlhe@iud.ecnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41701180)

A proposal for geography of unification: The lessons from German Unification

Jinliao HE1,2(), GEBHARDT Hans3, Xianjin HUANG4, Gang ZENG1,2   

  1. 1. The Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. Institute of Urban Development, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    3. Geographical Institute, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
    4. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Science, Nanjing University, Shanghai 210046, China
  • Received:2018-01-11 Revised:2019-03-11 Online:2019-04-25 Published:2019-04-23
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41701180

摘要:

国家的统一问题一直是关乎区域稳定发展、民族复兴乃至世界和平的大事,然而在地理学领域系统讨论该命题的研究尚不多见。事实上,地理学拥有比政治学和法学更为综合的理论分析体系,尤其是随着政治地理学的快速崛起,从地理学视角解析国家统一的发生机理和影响机制已经日渐成熟。本文从国家主权学说、地缘政治学、后殖民主义、新帝国主义等理论出发,试图构建“国家统一地理学”的分析框架,将国家统一分解为地缘政治重构、经济一体化和文化认同重建3个不同的阶段;并通过东西德国统一的案例分析,深入诠释了德国统一过程中政治版图和地缘格局变化,德国统一后漫长的经济一体化和原西德资本主义的野蛮扩张,以及由于长时间受到不同文化帝国主义渗透带来的民族身份认同分歧问题。德国案例很好地展示了从地理学视角探讨国家统一问题的优越性,同时德国的案例分析可为其他国家的统一问题提供参考与借鉴。

关键词: 地缘关系, 国家统一, 经济一体化, 文化身份

Abstract:

National unification is a crucial issue for regional stability and national rejuvenation, which is, however, out sight of the mainstream geographers in China. In fact, human geography has a more comprehensive and systematic theoretical framework for interpreting the process of national unification than political science and law studies have, especially due to the rapid rise of political geography. This paper aims to probe into the mechanism and implications of national unification based on a series of theoretical establishments, such as state sovereignty, geopolitics, post colonialism, and new imperialism. We attempt to deconstruct the process of national unification into three-dimensional restructuring of space, namely, geo-political relationship, capital space, and cultural identification. The case of Germany's unification in 1990 represents the process of unification after the collapse of the Berlin wall, which can be regarded, first, as a result of upheaval of international political pattern, say, the end of the Cold War, due to the decline of the former Soviet Union while the rise of neoliberal capitalists. Second, the unification of Germany is a durable process that takes place in economic integration between West and East Germany, during which the capitalist imperialism has been playing an invisible role in speeding up barbarous expansion of capital. Third, the cultural imperialism that has permeated into the people's ideology and perception of state has been chronically influencing the formation of the identity as "one Germany".

Key words: geopolitics, national unification, economic integration, cultural identity