地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (4): 753-769.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201904010

• 产业与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

1978年以来广州市居民职住地选择行为时空特征与影响因素的代际差异

林荣平1,2(), 周素红1,2,3(), 闫小培1   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275
    2. 广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室,广州 510275
    3. 广东省公共安全与灾害工程技术研究中心,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2017-11-13 修回日期:2019-03-11 出版日期:2019-04-25 发布日期:2019-04-23
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:林荣平(1988-), 男, 福建漳州人, 博士生, 研究方向为城市地理与城市规划。E-mail: linrp3@mail2.sysu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41871148, 41522104, 41531178);广东省自然科学基金项目(2017A030313228, 2014A 030312010)

Intergenerational differences of spatio-temporal characteristics and influencing factors of home-work location changes since 1978: Empirical analysis based on the micro-survey in Guangzhou, China

Rongping LIN1,2(), Suhong ZHOU1,2,3(), Xiaopei YAN1   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-simulation, Guangzhou 510275, China
    3. Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center for Public Security and Disaster, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2017-11-13 Revised:2019-03-11 Online:2019-04-25 Published:2019-04-23
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41871148, No.41522104, No.41531178;Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, No.2017A030313228, No.2014A030312010

摘要:

1978年以来,中国体制改革重塑了个体日常时空行为及其在生命过程中的活动轨迹,但鲜有文献解析长时间序列下不同代际群体对职住政策调整做出的响应及其代际差异。基于时间地理学视角与代际差异理论,将广州市微观个体职住地变动历程与代际问题相结合,利用问卷调查分析1988年和1998年居民职住制度改革前后,不同代际居民职住地变迁行为时空特征及其影响因素的结构性差异。结果发现:① 在居住地和就业地变迁方向方面,各代际居民住房迁出地主要集中于老城区,就业地变迁围绕两个城市中心,形成由老城核心地域向内城、近郊扩散的变迁过程。② 职住地距离变化方面,居民平均职住距离由1988年之前的4.91 km增至1998年之后的6.46 km,20世纪90年代出生居民(简称90后,下同)的职住分离度大于其他群体。③ 在职住地变迁率方面,住房商品化和就业社会化极大地增加了居民职住地选择自由度,60后和70后在1998年之后的迁居率分别为113.16%与112.33%,就业地变迁率分别为148.68%与197.26%,二者都远高于住房改革前的比例。④ 驻留时长方面,职住自由化使得驻留时长明显缩短。60后变化最为明显,该群体在一个居住地的居住时长由1988年以前的14.43年缩至1998年以后的5.43年,就业地驻留时长由12.43年降至3.95年;80后与90后在1998年以后的职住地驻留时长明显较短,70后相对较长。⑤ 能力、组合及权威制约中的房价、婚姻状况、学历、福利分房及下岗等因素对职住地变迁表现出明显代际差异,因子女上学及同事关系等组合制约对就业地变迁无显著群体差别。

关键词: 职住地选择, 代际差异, 时间地理, 广州, 时空

Abstract:

The housing and employment system in urban China has experienced profound transformations in the late 1980s and 1990s. Thus, individual daily behavior and its trajectory in life process have been reshaped and changed. However, previous studies barely focused on the feedback interaction of home-work behavior among different generations, especially beyond Chinese policy transition. Based on the intergenerational difference theory and the perspective of time geography, this paper combines individual jobs-housing course and inter-generational issue to analyze the spatio-temporal characteristics and structural differences of living and working behavior among different generations. These generations were born either before the reform of employment and housing system in 1988 or after in 1998. Through the analysis of the questionnaire, the main results are as follows. (1) Considering the migration of residence, all generations tend to move out from the old city area, and the migration of work places surrounds two city centers, forming a transition process from core area of old city to the suburbs. (2) The average commuting distance increased from 4.91 km to 6.46 km, while the work places and residences of post-1990s' changes much more than those of other age groups, who have suffered higher jobs-housing separation. (3) The commercialization and socialization of housing have greatly increased the freedom of individual residence and job choices after removing residents' house restrictions. In 1998-2016, the rates of post-1960s' and post-1970s' housing change increased to 113.16% and 112.33%, while the rates of their employment place change increased to 148.68% and 197.26%, which are higher compared with before housing reform. (4) The residence time decrease obviously due to the mobility of occupation, with a most obvious change among post-1960s from 14.43 years before 1988 to 5.43 years after 1998. Besides, and the staying in employment place decreased from 12.43 years to 3.95 years. The staying time of post-1980s and post-1990s was much shorter as well after 1988 while that of post-1970s was relatively long. (5) The influences of housing price, marital status, education, welfare house and laid-off status, etc. in capability constraints, coupling constraints and authority constraints are different among different generations on both living and working place migration. However, children's attendance at school and colleagues relationship in combined constraints have no significant different influences between groups on working place migration.

Key words: home-work location change, intergenerational differences, time geography, Guangzhou, space-time