地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (2): 323-339.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201902009

• 地缘经济与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

典型村域乡村重构的过程及其驱动因素

屠爽爽1,2(),龙花楼2,3(),张英男2,3,周星颖4   

  1. 1. 南宁师范大学北部湾环境演变与资源利用教育部重点实验室,南宁 530001
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    4. 南宁师范大学地理科学与规划学院,南宁 530001
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-03 出版日期:2019-02-25 发布日期:2019-01-29
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41731286);中国博士后科学基金项目(2018M630197)

Process and driving factors of rural restructuring in typical villages

TU Shuangshuang1,2(),LONG Hualou2,3(),ZHANG Yingnan2,3,ZHOU Xingying4   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Environment Change and Resources Use in Beibu Gulf, Nanning Normal University, the Ministry of Education, Nanning 530001, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    4. School of Geography and Planning, Nanning Normal University, Nanning 530001, China
  • Received:2018-09-03 Online:2019-02-25 Published:2019-01-29
  • Supported by:
    Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41731286;The Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China, No.2018M630197

摘要:

乡村重构是实施推进乡村振兴战略的重要手段,一个完整的乡村重构过程通常由初始期、发展期、趋稳期、稳成期等不同阶段组成。本文在构建乡村重构过程分析的理论框架基础上,探索引入乡村发展指数、乡村重构强度指数和乡村重构贡献率的概念,选取大都市郊区和平原农区典型村域开展乡村重构过程的定量研究和驱动因素的对比分析。研究表明:① 20世纪90年代以来,伴随产业结构由传统农业向工业采矿业、旅游服务业转型,黄山店村社会经济形态和地域空间结构发生了剧烈重构,乡村重构过程依次经历了初始阶段、发展阶段,目前处于趋稳阶段;杨桥村产业发展经历了传统农业主导、农业兼业化生产阶段,自2000年以来开始出现社会经济重构迹象,近年来在地方政府推动下生活空间发生重构,但经济形态尚未发生明显改观,目前村域整体上仍处于低水平发展阶段。② 黄山店村快速的乡村重构是市场需求牵引、政府宏观政策引导等外源性因素及资源环境、区位条件、行为主体、经济基础、文化特质等内源性因素综合作用的结果;杨桥村的重构历程主要受城镇化、工业化、技术进步等社会经济发展进程以及“新农村建设”“增减挂钩”等外源性政策因素主导,缺乏内生发展动力是导致其重构速度相对缓慢的根源。

关键词: 乡村重构, 乡村振兴, 乡村地域系统, 大都市郊区, 平原农区, 乡村地理学

Abstract:

Rural restructuring is an important means of implementing and pushing forward the strategy of rural vitalization. A complete process of rural restructuring usually consists of different stages, including initial period, development period, stabilizing period and stable period. Based on the established theoretical framework of analyzing the process of rural restructuring, by introducing the concepts of rural development index, the intensity of rural restructuring and the contribution rate of rural restructuring, the quantitative research and comparative analysis of the driving factors of rural restructuring process at village scale were carried out in the typical villages in metropolitan suburbs and plain farming areas. The results show that: (1) Since the 1990s, along with the transformation of industrial structure from traditional agriculture to industrial mining and tourism service industry, the socio-economic forms and territorial spatial structure of Huangshandian Village have undergone drastic restructuring, and the process of rural restructuring has experienced the initial stage and the development stage successively, and in a stabilizing stage now. The industrial development of Yangqiao Village has experienced the stages of traditional agricultural leading and concurrent farming production. Since 2000, it has taken on a sign of socio-economic restructuring. Recently, the living space has been reconstructed under the promotion of local governments, but the economic form has not changed significantly. At present, the village is still at a low level of development as a whole. (2) The rapid rural restructuring in Huangshandian Village is the results of combined action of exogenous and endogenous factors. The exogenous factors include market requirement pull, government macro-policy guidance, and so on. The endogenous factors include resources and environment, location conditions, behavioral agent, economic foundation, cultural trait, and so on. The restructuring process of Yangqiao Village is mainly dominated by socio-economic development course including urbanization, industrialization and technological progress as well as some exogenous policies such as "building new countryside" and "increasing vs. decreasing balance" land-use policy. The root cause for its relatively slow restructuring speed is lacking of endogenous development impetus.

Key words: rural restructuring, rural vitalization, rural territorial system, metropolitan suburbs, plain farming areas, rural geography