地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (2): 238-252.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201902003

• 人口与城市研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京城市建成环境对犯罪行为和居住安全感的影响

张延吉1(),秦波2,朱春武2   

  1. 1. 福州大学建筑学院城乡规划系,福州 350116
    2. 中国人民大学城市规划与管理系,北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-16 出版日期:2019-02-25 发布日期:2019-01-29
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371007);福建省自然科学基金项目(2018J01747)

The impact of urban built environment on criminal behavior and residential security in Beijing

ZHANG Yanji1(),QIN Bo2,ZHU Chunwu2   

  1. 1. Department of Urban and Rural Planning, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, China
    2. Department of Urban Planning and Management, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2017-06-16 Online:2019-02-25 Published:2019-01-29
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41371007;Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, No.2018J01747

摘要:

犯罪地理学领域存在“街道眼”理论、防卫空间理论、破窗理论、环境设计预防犯罪等多种观点,但在开放与封闭谁更有益、设计与管理谁更重要、以及客观犯罪行为与主观安全感知的影响机制差异等问题上仍有争议。本文整合北京市的大样本调查、刑事案件及空间数据,系统探究城市建成环境对犯罪行为和居住安全感的影响。研究发现:① 社区出入控制有助于提升居住安全感,并能抑制小尺度上的犯罪活动,但封闭式居住小区存在犯罪现象的“挤出效应”,无法有效削减较大空间尺度上的犯罪总量。② 人流活动密集、城市功能集中、可渗透性较好的开放性空间对增进居住安全感具有正面影响,但由于为罪犯提供了更多作案对象和逃逸机会,助长了犯罪活动的发生。③ 城市环境的管理维护比设计建设环节更能增进居住安全感,也是在较大尺度上阻遏犯罪行为的关键手段。

关键词: 建成环境, 犯罪地理, 居住安全感, 刑事犯罪, 北京

Abstract:

When the concept of 'Narrow Road, Intensive Grid, and Open Space' commenced to be popularized in Chinese urban planning, some citizens had serious doubts about whether permeable environment could cause crime and unsafety or not. Theoretically, which one was safer, open or enclosed space? Which one was more critical on safety, design or management? What were the differences between factors influencing crime behavior and safety perception? All these academic debates were not resolved in criminal geography. This paper discussed how built environment around communities influenced crime behavior and sense of security on the basis of social investigations, criminal cases and geographic data in Beijing. Among them, the subjective evaluation and objective indicators were introduced to measure features of physical environment. On the other hand, crime occurrence was illustrated by both the criminal recalls and crime cases on record. This research indicated that the theory of which was better open or enclosed space actually depended on its space dimension. An enclosed community could make the residents feel safer and restrain low-dimensional crime activities, yet it caused the 'crowding-out' effect of crime activities. Therefore, 'Door closing' was unable to decrease crime rate essentially. Secondly, the influencing mechanism of crime behavior was quiet different from safety perception. Open space with intensive social activities, mixed urban function and high permeability had positive effects on sense of security. However, it allowed criminals to have more targets and increase their survival possibility which contributed to the occurrence of crimes. Thirdly, compared with the 'hard' section of physical environment, the 'soft' section of management and maintenance played a more important role in improving safety perception. Meanwhile, it could decrease the number of criminal activities in a higher spatial dimension. In summary, planners and governors should pay more attention to environmental maintenance and management as well as urban design in order to pursue crime prevention.

Key words: built environment, criminal geography, sense of security, criminal offense, Beijing