地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (1): 103-116.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201901008

• 气候变化与地表过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

黑河“97”分水方案适应性分析

蒋晓辉1,2(),夏军3,黄强4,龙爱华5,董国涛6,宋进喜1,2   

  1. 1. 西北大学城市与环境学院,西安 710127
    2. 陕西省地表系统与资源环境承载力重点实验室,西安 710127
    3. 武汉大学水资源与水电工程科学国家重点实验室,武汉 430072
    4. 西安理工大学西北旱区生态水利工程国家重点实验室培育基地,西安 710048
    5. 中国水利水电科学研究院流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室,北京 100038
    6. 黄河水利委员会黄河水利科学研究院,郑州 425000
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-17 出版日期:2019-01-18 发布日期:2019-01-18
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(91325201);十三五国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0404303)

Adaptability analysis of the Heihe River "97" water diversion scheme

JIANG Xiaohui1,2(),XIA Jun3,HUANG Qiang4,LONG Aihua5,DONG Guotao6,SONG Jinxi1,2   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Surface System and Environmental Carrying Capacity, Shaanxi Province, Xi'an 710127, China
    3. State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
    4. State Key Laboratory Base of Eco-Hydraulic Engineering in Arid Area, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China
    5. State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
    6. Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, YRCC, Zhengzhou 425000, China
  • Received:2017-08-17 Online:2019-01-18 Published:2019-01-18
  • Supported by:
    Major Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.91325201;National Key Research Program of China, No.2017YFC0404303

摘要:

黑河“97”分水方案自2000年实施以来,流入下游水量明显增加,缓解了下游生态环境恶化趋势,但在丰水年难以完成分水指标,其适应性受到各方关注。本文在分析“97”分水方案的技术特点及背景条件变化对分水方案适应性影响的基础上,通过构建黑河水资源配置模拟模型,对分水方案在不同需水条件和黄藏寺水库建成运行后长系列年(1958-2012年)实施情况进行了模拟,分析评价了黑河“97”分水方案的适应性。研究表明,由于分水方案制定和实施前后黑河经济社会、水系连通性等背景条件发生了较大变化,在现状工程和需水条件下,不能完成“97”分水方案的分水要求;在中游退耕至2000年水平和黄藏寺水库建成的情况下,虽然可以完成“97”分水方案的分水要求,但仍存在地下水超采情况,因此,基于20世纪80年代中期黑河经济社会和1955-1986年水文条件的“97”分水方案与黑河流域现状存在一定的不适应性。

关键词: 黑河“97”分水方案;, 影响分析, 变化背景条件, 长系列模拟, 适应性分析

Abstract:

The water diversion scheme is important for the sustainable development of the economic, social and ecological environment in different parts of the basin, especially for the rivers in arid areas. In order to curb the trend of ecological degradation in the lower reaches of the Heihe River, the Heihe River water diversion scheme, approved in 1997 by the Chinese government, was carried out in 2000. With the implementation of the water separation scheme, the allocation of domestic water, production and ecological water tends to be reasonable, and the trend of ecological environment deterioration has been relieved. However, there are still queries on the rationality of water diversion schemes because it is difficult to complete water diversion indicators in wet years. Therefore, it is necessary to comprehensively analyze the implementation of the water diversion scheme and evaluate its adaptability in the Heihe River under the changing background. In this paper, based on the analysis of the impact of water diversion scheme, the technical characteristics and adaptability of water diversion under the changing background were analyzed. By establishing water resource allocation model of the Heihe River, the implementation of water resource allocation under different water demands and the operation of Huangzangsi (Huangzang Temple) Reservoir for long-time series (from 1958 to 2012) were simulated, and then the adaptability of water diversion schemes was analyzed. The result shows that the Heihe River water diversion scheme cannot meet the requirements of water diversion under the current condition due to the changes of economic society and river connectivity in the Heihe River basin. Water diversion indicators can be accomplished when the area of farmland in the middle reaches decreases to the level of 2000 and the construction of Huangzangsi Reservoir is finished, but there is still over exploitation of groundwater in the middle reaches. In conclusion, "97" water diversion plan is inadaptable to the current situation to some extent on the basis of the economic, social and hydrologic conditions of the Heihe River in the mid-1980s.

Key words: Heihe River "97" water diversion scheme, impact analysis, long-time serial simulation, adaptability analysis, changing background