地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (1): 87-102.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201901007

• 气候变化与地表过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

干旱强度及发生时间对华北平原五省冬小麦产量影响

余慧倩1,2(),张强1,2(),孙鹏3,宋长青1,2   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学环境演变与自然灾害教育部重点实验室,北京 100875
    2. 北京师范大学地理科学学部 减灾与应急管理研究院,北京 100875
    3. 安徽师范大学国土资源与旅游学院,芜湖 241002
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-15 出版日期:2019-01-18 发布日期:2019-01-18
  • 基金资助:
    国家基金委创新群体项目(41621061);国家杰出青年科学基金项目(51425903);国家自然科学基金项目(41771536)

Impacts of drought intensity and drought duration on winter wheat yield in five provinces of North China plain

YU Huiqian1,2(),ZHANG Qiang1,2(),SUN Peng3,SONG Changqing1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Environmental Change and Natural Disaster, Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2. Faculty of Geographical Science & Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    3. College of Territorial Resources and Tourism, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, Anhui, China
  • Received:2018-01-15 Online:2019-01-18 Published:2019-01-18
  • Supported by:
    Fund for Creative Research Groups of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41621061;National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of China, No.51425903, National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41771536

摘要:

本文利用2001-2016年时间分辨率为8 d的MOD09A1和MOD16A2的数据集,构建了基于NDVI和ET/PET的干旱指数(DSI),分析华北平原五省不同程度的干旱在时间和空间上的分布情况,探究不同程度的干旱作用于冬小麦不同生长阶段对农作物产量产生的影响。研究表明:① 年际分布上,2001-2002年干旱最为严重,其余年份干旱显著减缓,年内分布上,干旱主要集中发生在春季和秋季,夏季次之,冬季最少;② 空间分布上,河北北部、河南南部、安徽及江苏的中部和北部、山东东部是干旱多发区;③ 干旱对冬小麦产量的影响研究表明,越冬期发生初旱对产量起促进作用,而在乳熟成熟阶段发生初旱则会导致农作物减产;轻旱发生在乳熟期会对冬小麦产量产生显著影响,而中旱发生在开花、乳熟成熟期都会对产量产生显著影响,随干旱程度加重,干旱对作物产量产生显著负作用的生长期越长;此外,在播种时若出现水分短缺也会对冬小麦的产量产生影响,尤其是发生重旱和特旱。研究不同强度干旱发生在不同生长阶段对冬小麦产量的影响,对研究区的灌溉时间规划以及保墒增产具有重要理论与现实意义。

关键词: 华北平原五省, 干旱强度, 作物产量, 粮食安全

Abstract:

Based on the MOD09A1 and MOD16A2 datasets with a temporal resolution of 8 days during a period from 2001 to 2016, Drought Severity Index (DSI) was quantified to characterize spatiotemporal distribution of droughts of different drought intensities. The correlation coefficients were quantified between drought-affected cropland area and the climatic winter wheat yield. In addition, relevant impacts of droughts with different drought intensities were investigated on the winter wheat yield during different growing periods. The results show that: (1) drought regimes during 2001-2016 showed a declining trend in terms of drought intensity at annual and inter-annual scales. The most severe drought occurred during 2001-2002 while regional and intermittent droughts could be observed during 2003-2010, and were alleviated during 2011-2016 with persistent wetting tendency thereafter. In terms of annual drought distribution, droughts occurred mainly in spring and autumn, some occurred in summer and few droughts in winter; (2) Generally, in terms of the spatial distribution of droughts, central and northern Hebei, southern Henan, Anhui and Jiangsu, and eastern Shandong provinces were dominated by frequent droughts though droughts were in decreasing trends; (3) analysis results concerning effects of droughts on winter wheat yield show that the incipient drought during the winter period can promote the winter wheat yield, while in the milking stage of the winter wheat, occurrence of droughts may decrease crop yield. The mild drought potential has significant effects on winter wheat yield during the ripening interval, while the moderate drought occurs during flowering, milking and ripening periods can have a significant impact on the winter wheat yield. Meanwhile, droughts with higher degree of intensity will have more significant impacts on winter wheat at its earlier growing season. In addition, water shortage due to drought effects during planting periods will reduce the yield of winter wheat, and severe and extreme droughts in particular. Therefore, it is of great merits in quantification of impacts of droughts with different intensities on winter wheat yield in different growing seasons, and it has important theoretical and practical significance for the planning of irrigation and the increase of soil moisture in the study region.

Key words: five provinces of the North China plain, drought intensity, crop yield, food security