地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (1): 3-15.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201901001

• 理论前沿 •    下一篇

地理协同论——从理解“人—地关系”到设计“人—地协同”

史培军1,2,3,4(),宋长青1,2,3,程昌秀1,3   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室,北京 100875
    2. 民政部—教育部减灾与应急管理研究院,北京 100875;
    3. 北京师范大学地理科学学部,北京 100875
    4. 青海师范大学地理科学学院,西宁 810016
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-17 出版日期:2019-01-18 发布日期:2019-01-18
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金创新研究群体项目(41621061);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFA0602404)

Geographical synergetics: From understanding human-environmentrelationship to designing human-environment synergy

SHI Peijun1,2,3,4(),SONG Changqing1,2,3,CHENG Changxiu1,3   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2. Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Ministry of Civil Affairs&Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875, China
    3. Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    4. School of Geographical Science, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810016, China
  • Received:2018-07-17 Online:2019-01-18 Published:2019-01-18
  • Supported by:
    Creative Research Groups of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41621061;National Key Research Program of China, No.2016YFA0602404

摘要:

本文从地球进入“人类世”(Anthropocene)之后,实现世界可持续发展、建设人类命运共同体的角度出发,就地表系统的复杂性、人类面临的各种灾难以及将要面临的各种资源短缺和环境风险等问题,提出发展“地理协同论”,即:地球表层系统与区域可持续性机理、过程与动力学,以实现地理学研究从理解“人—地关系”到设计“人—地协同”的转变。着眼于“人类世”时代地球表层系统由多尺度、多过程等组成的复杂性,回顾了区域论、综合论、系统论等经典地理学理论,从自然单元与社会单元的结合、自然资源利用与自然灾害防御、人类功与过的评价、自然地图与行政地图间的关系、动力学与非动力学的耦合等主题入手,深入讨论了现代地理科学与技术问题。通过理解灾害系统及其致灾成害机理、过程和动力学,构建凝聚度指标,量化综合减灾系统的复杂性。利用协同宽容、约束、放大和分散原理,以灾害风险防范共识最高、成本最低、福利最大、风险最小化为目标,构建以政府为主导、企业为主体和社区全面参与的综合灾害风险防范凝聚力模式。在分析都江堰工程如何实现除害与兴利并举的基础上,综合阐释了“人类世”时代“适度改造自然”,以实现人与自然的协同。

关键词: 人类世, 资源短缺, 环境风险, 经典地理学理论, 地理协同论, 除害与兴利并举, 区域可持续性

Abstract:

From the perspective of achieving sustainable development in the world and building a community with a shared future for humankind in the "Anthropocene", and considering the complexity of the Earth's surface system, various disasters facing humanity, and future challenges of resource shortages and environmental risks, we proposed the development of "geographical synergy"—the mechanism, process and dynamics of the Earth's surface system and regional sustainability—in order to realize the transformation of geographical research from the explanation of human-environment relationship to the design of human-environment synergy. We discussed the scientific and technological questions of modern geography from the perspectives of integrating natural and social units, natural resources and natural disasters, achievements and faults of humans, and coupling of dynamic and non-dynamic processes and systems. We proposed the metrics of "consilience degree" as a measure of the complexity of integrated disaster reduction system based on the understanding of disaster system and the mechanism, process and dynamics of hazard and disaster formation. Using the principles of synergetic tolerance, synergetic constraint, synergetic amplification and synergetic diversification, we proposed to build an integrated disaster risk governance consilience model under the leadership of governments and with enterprises as the main body and the full participation of communities, with multiple optimization objectives of social consent maximization, cost minimization, welfare maximization, and risk minimization. Finally, we elaborated on the synergy of human and nature through "changing nature appropriately", with a case study on the Dujiangyan irrigation system, which enabled the win-win pattern of disaster reduction and benefit making.

Key words: Anthropocene, resources shortage, environmental risk, classical geographical theory, geographical synergetics, win-win pattern of disaster reduction and benefit making, region sustainability