地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (10): 1910-1922.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201810007

• 城市研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于创新的城市化——中国270个地级及以上城市数据的实证分析

吕拉昌1,2,3(),孙飞翔2,3,黄茹2,3   

  1. 1. 首都师范大学管理学院,北京 100048
    2. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院,北京 100048
    3. 北京城市创新与发展研究中心,北京 100048
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-28 出版日期:2018-10-25 发布日期:2018-10-25
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471136)

Innovation-based urbanization: Evidence from 270 cities at the prefecture level or above in China

LYU Lachang1,2,3(),SUN Feixiang2,3,HUANG Ru2,3   

  1. 1. College of Management, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
    2. College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
    3. Beijing Urban innovation and Development Research Center, Beijing 100048, China
  • Received:2017-08-28 Online:2018-10-25 Published:2018-10-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41471136

摘要:

传统城市化概念已难以解释全球范围内出现的新兴城市化模式,而“创新”是解读城市化新变化的重要概念。从“流的空间”视角,提出了基于创新的城市化概念。在此基础上,选取中国地级及以上270个城市作为研究的空间单元,依据第六次全国人口普查资料,分析了中国高技能迁移人口和城市文化多元性的空间分布特征,采用空间杜宾模型方法,构建城市创新空间回归模型,测度了中国高技能迁移人口规模和城市文化多元性水平对城市创新产出的影响,验证了基于创新的城市化概念。研究表明:① 基于创新的城市化概念顺应知识经济发展的背景,强调高技能劳动力向城市的迁移过程,促进城市职能与景观发生变化,城市知识活动与行为的扩展,可以很好的解释城市发展的新动力、新机制和新的创新景观。② 基于高技能劳动力迁移的创新的城市化是城市发展的重要动力,对中国的沿海及省会城市的城市化发展有重要作用。③ 中国国内高技能劳动力迁移规模和城市文化多元性水平均对城市创新产出具有正效应。在其他条件不变的情形下,城市高技能迁移人口数量每增加10%,直接带来的城市创新产出增加3%;城市文化多元性水平每提高10%,直接带来的城市创新产出增加2%。研究在理论上加深了对区域创新系统开放性和动态性的理解与认识,为知识经济下城市化和城市发展政策的制定提供了重要理论依据。

关键词: 基于创新的城市化, 创新, 城市化, 高技能劳动力, 人口迁移, 文化多元性, 中国

Abstract:

With the rapid development of knowledge economy, great changes have been taking place in urbanization pattern across the world in the current conjuncture. Considering the fact that traditional urbanization theory is hard to interpret these changes, innovation is the core concept to explain the phenomenon of the new urbanization dynamics. As one of important contents of urban geography, in the perspective of space of flows, urbanization dynamics needs to turn from research on the population flow between rural and urban research to studies on high skilled migrants flow among cities and regions. Against this background, we propose a conception of innovation-based urbanization, and use it to describe the effect of high skilled migrants and cultural diversity on urban innovation in China. Based on the sixth census data of 270 cities in China in 2010, our study calculates the index of cultural diversity of each city, and analyses the spatial structure of high skilled migrants and cultural diversity in China. Then this study measures the extent to which high skilled migrants and cultural diversity increase urban innovation, with a method of spatial regression analysis. Conceptual and empirical contributions are also compared to previous studies. The results are obtained as follows: (1) The migration of highly skilled to cities, which changes urban function and landscape and extends the knowledge activities and behaviors, is emphasized by innovation-based urbanization conception, which responds to the development of knowledge-based economy, providing a good explanation of new dynamics, new mechanism of urban development and new urban innovation landscape. (2) Innovation-based urbanization is the important driving force for Chinese urban development, especially for eastern coastal areas and provincial capital cities. (3) Highly skilled migrants and cultural diversity do have demonstrated positive effect on urban innovation output. A ten percent increase in the number of urban highly skilled migrants and the index of cultural diversity direct increase respectively urban patents by 3% and 2%. The conclusions could deepen the understanding of openness and dynamics of regional innovation system and help to improve decision-making ability on urbanization planning, promoting urban innovation and development.

Key words: innovation-based urbanization, innovation, urbanization, highly skilled, migrants, cultural diversity, China