地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (8): 1571-1585.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201808013

• 交通与旅游地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

旅游发展对古村落村民公民性建构的影响——以开平古碉楼群为例

庄晓平1(),尹书华2,朱竑3   

  1. 1. 华南师范大学旅游管理系,广州 510631
    2. 华南理工大学经济与贸易学院, 广州 510006
    3. 广州大学华南人文地理与城市发展研究中心,广州 510006
  • 收稿日期:2017-07-10 出版日期:2018-08-15 发布日期:2018-07-31
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41630635);广东自然科学基金项目(2016A030313442)

The impact of tourism development on the construction of citizenship for ancient village residents in rural China:The case study of Kaiping Diaolou Complex

ZHUANG Xiaoping1(),YIN Shuhua2,ZHU Hong3()   

  1. 1. School of Tourism Management, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    2. School of Economics and Commerce, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China
    3. Southern China Human Geography and Urban Development Research Center, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
  • Received:2017-07-10 Online:2018-08-15 Published:2018-07-31
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41630635;Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, No.2016A030313442

摘要:

中国古村落是一个相对稳定和封闭的微社会,但当古村落作为世界文化遗产地得到旅游开发后,新的经济方式的介入以及大量游客的进入,对古村落村民的思想、生活等产生了重大冲击。研究发现,世界文化遗产地开平碉楼群随着旅游开发程度的不同,所在地村民呈现出公民性的差异。研究借助所建构的“公民性”指标,在证明旅游作为3个已开发古村落的主要经济驱动力的情况下,指出旅游开发越充分的古村落,村民的公民性越强。从而揭示出旅游作为一种改变古村落经济模式的主要驱动力,在中国3个地理位置毗邻、治理模式一致、风土民情相似的古村落中,因其发展带来了“公民性”普世伦理的出现。该研究回答了“公民性”这一普世的人类文明标尺在中国传统社会中产生的过程和机制,研究价值层面或对中国尚显薄弱的道德地理学的发展具有一定裨益。

关键词: 旅游发展, 公民性, 建构, 文化遗产地, 道德地理学, 开平碉楼

Abstract:

Since they were inscribed on the World Cultural Heritage List, ancient villages in rural China, which used to be relatively stable and closed communities, have embraced economic change that happened to the ways of life for the local residents as a result of the newly introduced economy and the flood of visitors. This paper takes Diaolou complex, a UNESCO Would Heritage site in China as a case study. It is found, after a seven-year study, that there is a significant correlation between the level of tourism development and the civic participation of local village residents.
In this paper, a comparison is made between the conditions in three different ancient villages before and after they were recognized as World Cultural Heritage Sites. With a further analysis of the data provided by the current local authorities and travel agencies concerning the main sources of income and the new economic structure, we found that there are some discrepancies in tourism development among the three ancient villages. Furthermore, to provide a plausible explanation of the interaction between tourism development and the construction of local civil society and citizenship, this paper first articulates the concept of "citizenship" in the literature, and then examines the results from in-depth interviews and field researches.
It is found that tourism development does bring about citizenship, viewed as a universal value, in the three adjacent ancient villages with similar governance patterns and similar traditions. In explaining the cultivation process and transformation mechanism of citizenship in traditional Chinese societies, this paper contributes to the studies in moral geography in China.

Key words: tourism development, citizenship, construction, cultural heritage, moral geographies, Kaiping Diaolou