地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (8): 1494-1512.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201808008

所属专题: 人口与城市研究

• 城市与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京市流动人口聚居区空间分异及形成机理

赵美风1(),戚伟2,刘盛和2()   

  1. 1. 天津师范大学地理与环境科学学院,天津 300387
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-01 出版日期:2018-08-15 发布日期:2018-07-31
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金青年项目(41701151), 教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(17YJCZH256)

Spatial differentiation and formation mechanism of floating population communities in Beijing

ZHAO Meifeng1(),QI Wei2,LIU Shenghe2()   

  1. 1. School of Geographic and Environmental Sciences, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2018-03-01 Online:2018-08-15 Published:2018-07-31
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41701151, MOE (Ministry of Education in China) Project of Humanities and Social Sciences, No.17YJCZH256

摘要:

随着特大城市功能转变和产业结构优化升级,流动人口结构出现了巨大变化,进而引致流动人口聚居区的类型趋向多元化,空间分异及形成原因愈加复杂化。本文运用GIS空间分析、数理统计方法以及空间计量模型,刻画了北京市流动人口聚居区的空间分异特征;并从社区和个体两个层面剖析流动人口聚居区空间分异的形成机理。研究发现:① 北京市流动人口聚居区总体呈“环形”绕城分布,表现出明显的城乡过渡性和景观异质性;同时具有显著的空间类型差异。② 流动人口聚居区空间分异特征是需求与供给耦合作用的结果,是社区因素和个体因素共同影响下形成的。③ 社区因素是流动人口聚居区空间分异的外部驱动力,其中:经济因素是基本动力,交通因素是空间引导性力量,制度因素是根本力量,空间溢出效应是主导力量。④ 个体因素是流动人口聚居区空间分异的内部驱动力,其中:家庭生命周期是直接动力,社会经济地位是主导力量,人口迁移特征是潜在推力,基本公共服务需求是非敏感因子。通过本文研究,将有助于政府及城市规划部门制定更具针对性、更加高效的流动人口聚居区治理策略,从而促进流动人口聚居区实现差别化转型升级。

关键词: 流动人口聚居区, 空间分异, 影响因素, 机理, 北京市

Abstract:

With the shift of urban function and the upgrade of industrial structure, the floating population structure has undergone a profound change. The floating population community is pyramidally diversified and its formation mechanism is becoming increasingly complicated. Taking Beijing as the study area, and synthesizing GIS spatial analysis, mathematical statistics analysis and spatial econometric model, this paper investigates the spatial differentiation of floating population communities in Beijing. On this basis, it explores the formation mechanism of floating population communities by synthesizing community and individual factors. The results show the following: (1) Floating population communities in Beijing circle the Forbidden City and present the dual characteristics of urban and rural areas. Meanwhile, they demonstrate obvious differentiation among spatial classes. (2) The spatial differentiation of floating population communities is the combined result of the floating population's demand and housing supply, as well as the result of community and individual factors. (3) Community factors are the external driving forces of the spatial differentiation of floating population communities. Specifically, economic factors are the basic driving force; public transportation factors are the spatial leading driving force; institutional factors are the fundamental driving force; and spatial spillover effects are the dominant driving force. (4) Individual factors are the internal driving forces of the spatial differentiation of floating population communities. Specifically, the family life cycle is the direct driving force; the socio economic status is the major driving force; the migration feature is the underlying driving force; and the basic public service demand is the insensitive driving force. This study provides a scientific basis for the government's administrative and management strategy, and advances the effective and efficient transformation and upgrade of floating population communities.

Key words: floating population community, spatial differentiation, influencing factor, mechanism, Beijing