地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (8): 1433-1448.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201808004

• 城市与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于空间句法视角的民国以来北京老城街道网络演变

周麟1(),田莉1(),张臻1,李薇3   

  1. 1. 清华大学建筑学院,北京 100084
    2. 新加坡国立大学生物力学研究所,新加坡 117411
    3. 北京市规划和国土资源委员会海淀分局,北京 100190
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-06 出版日期:2018-08-15 发布日期:2018-07-31
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(51222813, 51728802);北京市社会科学基金项目(16GLB036)

The street networks evolution in Beijing old city since the establishment of the Republic of China: A syntactical view

ZHOU Lin1(),TIAN Li1(),ZHANG Zhen2,LI Wei3   

  1. 1. School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    2. Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117411, Singapore
    3. Beijing Haidian Municipal Commission for City Planning and Land Resources Management, Beijing 100190, China
  • Received:2017-09-06 Online:2018-08-15 Published:2018-07-31
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.51222813, No.51728802;Beijing Social Science Fund Project, No.16GLB036

摘要:

研究基于空间句法理论与方法,结合不同时期的数字化历史地图,从街道网络显型、“局部—整体”层级关系及运转效率等三方面探讨民国以来北京老城的街道网络演变进程。结果表明:① 政权更替是其演变的分水岭。民国时期,老城街道网络由封建隔离结构向现代通达结构转型,环环相扣、中轴对称式的整合、穿行核心格局同时被打破。1949年中华人民共和国成立后,街道网络的几何格网特征越发明显,“环形+大格网”式的核心运动骨架凸显,不同街道段的可达性与穿行频率则逐渐趋同。② 老城各子区域的可达性层级关系在百余年来持续变化,穿行频率层级关系则保持稳定,与其他区域相比,东城的可达性与穿行频率优势明显。③ 政权更替之际新结构的集中嵌入与随后规划建设的路径依赖使得老城全域的运转效率历经“下降→上升→下降→上升”的起伏演变过程。这一过程同样出现在东城、西城与外城,但更强的几何格网特征促使前者的两次上升幅度较大,运转效率也相对较高,而皇城的运转效率则随小规模封闭系统的日益开放呈阶梯式下降。概括来讲,研究不仅运用数字化手段系统梳理了北京老城的街道发展史,为如何更好地保护古都风貌,传承历史文脉提供了街道网络视角的逻辑支撑,对于空间句法的理论算法体系也进行了一定拓展。

关键词: 空间句法, 北京老城, 街道网络演变, 街道网络显型, “局部—整体”层级关系;, 运转效率

Abstract:

By using space syntax techniques with digital historical maps in different times, this study tries to reveal the evolution process of Beijing old city's street network since the establishment of the Republic of China in the 1910s from three aspects, which are phenotype of street networks, part-whole hierarchical relation and operation efficiency. The results show that: first, the vicissitudes of dynasties divide evolution process into two parts. In the Republican Period, the street network transformed from feudal isolation structure to modern connective structure. The axisymmetric hook-ups NAIN and NACH cores patterns were broken up together. After the founding of New China in 1949, the geometry grid features of old city's street network became obvious, and the ring and big grid movement skeleton system sprang up gradually. Meanwhile, the accessibility and through frequency of different street segments became more and more similar. Second, the accessibility hierarchical relationship in each sub-area of the old city was in a constant change, however, the through frequency relationship stabilized for more than 100 years. Compared with other sub-areas, the east city had obvious spatial advantages of accessibility and through frequency. Third, two insertions of new structure and the path dependence of subsequent plan made the operation efficiency of street network experienced rise and fall. This process also emerged in east city, west city and outer city, and the stronger geometry grid feature urged east city to have a higher rising range and operation efficiency. Moreover, the imperial city's operation efficiency experienced a descent stage because of its opening wider to the outside world. In summary, this research completely organizes the phylogeny of Beijing old city's street network, provides the logical support from the street network perspective to protect the capital's traditional and inherit historical context, and expands the theoretical algorithm system of space syntax.

Key words: space syntax, Beijing old city, street networks evolution, phenotype of street networks, part-whole hierarchical relation, operation efficiency