地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (7): 1365-1380.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201807014

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基于遥感的江苏省大陆岸线岸滩时空演变

陈玮彤1(),张东1,2(),崔丹丹3,吕林3,谢伟军3,施顺杰1,侯泽宇1   

  1. 1. 南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210023
    2. 江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,南京 210023
    3. 江苏省海域使用动态监视监测中心,南京 210003
  • 收稿日期:2017-07-10 出版日期:2018-07-25 发布日期:2018-07-13
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771447);江苏省测绘地理信息科研项目(JSCHKY201504);江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目(164320H116)

Monitoring spatial and temporal changes in the continental coastline and the intertidal zone in Jiangsu province, China

CHEN Weitong1(),ZHANG Dong1,2(),CUI Dandan3,LV Lin3,XIE Weijun3,SHI Shunjie1,HOU Zeyu1   

  1. 1. Department of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
    3. Sea Area Use Dynamic Surveillant and Monitoring Center of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210003, China
  • Received:2017-07-10 Online:2018-07-25 Published:2018-07-13
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41771447;Scientific Research Project of Surveying and Mapping Geographic Information of Jiangsu, No.JSCHKY 201504;A Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, No.164320H116

摘要:

基于江苏省1984-2016年61景多源遥感影像数据和部分实测潮位、坡度数据,利用遥感技术结合改进的水边线方法提取了多时相的海岸线和平均大潮低潮线,研究了江苏省绣针河口至连兴河口大陆岸线岸滩的时空演变特征。结果表明:1984-2016年,由于海岸带开发,江苏省的海岸线整体以向海推进为主,自然岸线由458.24 km逐渐减少至166.74 km,人工岸线由163.66 km快速增加至598.74 km,大陆岸线长度由621.90 km增加至765.48 km。发生位置和长度变化的岸段中,淤长岸段长127.62 km,年均向海推进83.03 m;围垦岸段长401.21 km,年均向海推进87.63 m;冲刷岸段长71.17 km,年均离海后退10.81 m;围垦被侵蚀岸段长25.95 km,年均离海后退8.64 m。海岸线的空间变化导致江苏省沿海陆地面积净增加104332 hm2,其中由于围垦增加的陆地面积98520 hm2,围垦是陆地面积增加的主要原因。海岸线的离海后退主要发生在废黄河三角洲岸段,但是到2008-2016年,岸线的侵蚀范围已向南扩大至新洋河口至斗龙港岸段。受围垦活动及岸线侵蚀影响,江苏省潮间带坡度不断变陡,统计断面的平均坡度由1.4‰增加至1.9‰,其中废黄河三角洲岸段的中山河口至扁担河口岸段坡度最陡,基本在3~14‰之间;辐射沙洲陆岸岸段坡度最为平缓,但坡度也在逐渐陡化,由0.9‰增加至1.5‰。潮间带面积由271747 hm2减少至168645 hm2,减幅38%;潮间带平均宽度由5064 m减少至3096 m,减幅39%。

关键词: 江苏省, 海岸线, 潮间带, 时空演变, 遥感

Abstract:

This study examines spatial and temporal changes in the continental coastline and the intertidal zone from the Xiuzhen estuary to the Lianxing estuary in Jiangsu province from 1984 to 2016. This work employed an improved water-line method based on 61 multi-source remote-sensing images, as well as tide and measured slope data. The coastline is a combination of the mean high-tide line and artificial coastline. The mean high-tide line was derived from elevation data contained in the waterlines through the improved water-line method. Water lines were extracted from remote sensing images using object-oriented classification, band operation, etc. Then, tides at the tide stations at image acquisition times were predicted using the T-Tide program. The predicted tides were assigned to water lines and intertidal slopes were calculated. Finally, mean high-tide and low-tide lines were determined from measured and calculated slopes. The quantitative analysis of the coastline, mean low tide line, and intertidal zone yielded the following main conclusions. From 1984 to 2016, Jiangsu's coastline advanced mainly towards the sea because of coastal development. The natural shoreline decreased from 458.24 to 166.74 km, while the artificial shoreline increased from 163.66 to 598.74 km. The length of Jiangsu’s continental coastline also increased from 621.90 to 765.48 km. During this period, the positions and lengths of different segments of the coastline changed. The deposited coast, which advanced toward the sea at an annual rate of 83.03 m, was 127.62 km long. The reclaimed coast, which advanced towards the sea at an annual rate of 87.63 m, was 401.21 km. The erosional coast, which receded at an annual rate of 10. 81 m, was 71.17 km long. The eroded reclaimed coast, which receded at an annual rate of 8.64 m, was 25.95 km long. The area of Jiangsu underwent a net increase of 104332 hm2, primarily due to reclamation, with reclaimed land representing 98520 hm2. Erosion mainly occurred in the abandoned Yellow River Delta, but during 2008-2016, it extended southward from the Xinyang to the Doulong harbor. The slopes of the intertidal zone became steeper due to reclamation and shoreline erosion, changing from 1.4‰ to 1.9‰. The abandoned Yellow River Delta experienced the most severe change in slope, with its mean slope in the range of 3‰-14‰. The mean slope of the radial sandbank of the onshore coast, which had the gentlest slope, increased from 0.9‰ to 1.5‰. The intertidal area decreased by 38% from 271747 to 168645 km2, while the mean width of the intertidal zone decreased by 39% from 5064 m to 3096 m.

Key words: Jiangsu province, coastline, intertidal zone, spatial and temporal change, remote sensing