地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (7): 1189-1203.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201807001

• 院士论坛 •    下一篇

中国西北“水三线”空间格局与水资源配置方略

邓铭江()   

  1. 新疆额尔齐斯河流域开发工程建设管理局,乌鲁木齐 830000
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-29 出版日期:2018-07-25 发布日期:2018-07-13

"Three Water Lines" strategy: Its spatial patterns and effects on water resources allocation in northwest China

DENG Mingjiang()   

  1. Xinjiang Ertix River Basin Development and Construction Management Bureau, Urumqi 830000, China
  • Received:2018-03-29 Online:2018-07-25 Published:2018-07-13

摘要:

水是西北地区可持续发展的生命线,中国西北地区占国土总面积35.9%,水资源约占全国水资源总量的5.7%。从水文气象、生态景观与社会经济的演变角度,面向水资源优化配置、生态环境与社会经济协调发展,探索提出西北“水三线”的划分格局,即“胡焕庸线”“阳关线”和“奇策线”。“水三线”是西北水资源合理开发利用的优化配置线、西北生态文明与环境保护的特征分区线、“一带一路”建设的战略制导线和边疆长治久安、社会稳定的国家安全线。针对西北地区水资源开发利用存在的问题、面临的挑战以及西北稳定发展的地理与历史之忧,本文通过对西北调水方案的初步分析,提出了西北“水三线”建设的空间格局与水资源配置方略,即通过建设南水北调大西线这一重大的基础工程,跨越“胡焕庸线”,促进中国东西部地区间适度均衡发展;跨越“阳关线”,促进河西走廊社会经济发展;跨越“奇策线”,增强新疆水资源及环境承载能力,建设和谐美丽、长治久安的西北边疆,形成以西北“水三线”建设为构架的水资源梯度配置格局,支撑西北地区经济社会稳定发展、生态文明建设,促进国土资源、人口分布、产业经济的空间均衡、优化布局、协调发展,为“一带一路”建设提供水资源保障。

关键词: 西北“水三线”, 阳关线, 奇策线, 空间格局, 水资源配置, 协调发展, 中国

Abstract:

Water is the lifeline of socio-economic sustainable development in northwest China. The land area of northwestern region accounts for 35.9% of China's total, but it has only about 5% of water resources of the whole country. This study proposed the "Three Water Lines" (Heihe-Tengchong Line, Yangguan Line, and Qitai-Cele Line) of northwest China under the perspective of the evolution of hydro-meteorology, ecological landscapes and socio-economic development. The "Three Water Lines" were the optimal configuration lines of the rational development and utilization of water resources, the characteristic zoning lines of ecological civilization and environmental protection, the guiding lines of "the Belt and Road Initiative" strategic focus, and the national security lines of long-term stability of the border areas. Facing the existing problems and challenges in the development and utilization of water resources in northwest China, this study proposed the "Three Water Lines" strategy and its spatial pattern coupling with the analysis of scenarios of water diversion of northwest China. The west route of the South-North Water Transfer Project is a fundamental project for the implementation of the "Three Water Lines" strategy. It is essential to overcome the constraints of the socio-economic development through the new strategies: (1) breaking through the "Heihe-Tengchong Line" will promote balanced development between the eastern and western regions of China; (2) Breaking through the current "Yangguan Line" will boost social and economic development in the Hexi Corridor, (3) Breaking through the "Qitai-Cele Line" will enhance water resources and environmental carrying capacity. A new spatial pattern of water resources allocation along the gradient was formed by the "Three Water Lines" strategy. The new water resources allocation patterns will be able to support stable development of socio-economy and ecological civilization construction, optimize population distribution and the layout of socio-economic development, and provide a reliable guarantee of water resources for the implementation of "the Belt and Road Initiative".

Key words: northwest China, "Three Water Lines" strategy, "Yangguan Line", "Qitai-Cele Line", spatial pattern, water resources allocation, coordinated development, China