地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (5): 789-802.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201805001

• 土地利用与生态系统服务 •    下一篇

2010-2015年中国土地利用变化的时空格局与新特征

刘纪远1(),宁佳1,匡文慧1(),徐新良1,张树文2,颜长珍3,李仁东4,吴世新5,胡云锋1,杜国明6,迟文峰1,潘涛5,宁静6   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春 130102
    3. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所,兰州 730000
    4. 中国科学院武汉测量与地球物理研究所,武汉 430077
    5. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,乌鲁木齐 830011
    6. 东北农业大学,哈尔滨 150030
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-19 出版日期:2018-05-03 发布日期:2018-05-03
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0506501);国家重点基础研究发展计划(2014CB954302)

Spatio-temporal patterns and characteristics of land-use change in China during 2010-2015

LIU Jiyuan1(),NING Jia1,KUANG Wenhui1(),XU Xinliang1,ZHANG Shuwen2,YAN Changzhen3,LI Rendong4,WU Shixin5,HU Yunfeng1,DU Guoming6,CHI Wenfeng1,PAN Tao5,NING Jing6   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS, Changchun 130102, China
    3. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
    4. Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS, Wuhan 430077, China
    5. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China
    6. Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
  • Received:2017-08-19 Online:2018-05-03 Published:2018-05-03
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program, No.2017YFC0506501;National Key Basic Research Program of China, No.2014CB954302

摘要:

土地利用/覆被变化是人类活动对地球表层及全球变化影响研究的重要内容。本文基于Landsat 8 OLI、GF-2等遥感图像和人机交互解译方法,获取的土地利用数据实现了中国2010-2015年土地利用变化遥感动态监测。应用土地利用动态度、年变化率等指标,从全国和分区角度揭示了2010-2015年中国土地利用变化的时空特征。结果表明:2010-2015年中国建设用地面积共增加24.6×103 km2,耕地面积共减少4.9×103 km2,林草用地面积共减少16.4×103 km2。2010-2015年与2000-2010年相比,中国土地利用变化的区域空间格局基本一致,但分区变化呈现新的特征。东部建设用地持续扩张和耕地面积减少,变化速率有所下降;中部建设用地扩张和耕地面积减少速度增加;西部建设用地扩张明显加速,耕地面积增速进一步加快,林草面积减少速率增加;东北地区建设用地扩展持续缓慢,耕地面积稳中有升,水旱田转换突出,林草面积略有下降。从“十二五”期间国家实施的主体功能区布局来看,东部地区的土地利用变化特征与优化和重点开发区的国土空间格局管控要求基本吻合;中部和西部地区则面临对重点生态功能区和农产品主产区相关土地利用类型实现有效保护的严峻挑战,必须进一步加大对国土空间开发格局的有效管控。

关键词: 土地利用变化, 时空特征, 卫星遥感, 主体功能区, 中国

Abstract:

Land use/cover change is an important theme on the impacts of human activities on the earth systems and global environment change. National land-use changes of China during 2010-2015 were acquired by the digital interpretation method using high-resolution remotely sensed images, i.e. the Landsat8 OLI, and GF-2 remote sensing images. The spatio-temporal characteristics of land-use changes across China during 2010-2015 were revealed by the indexes of dynamic degree model, annual land-use changes ratio, etc. The results indicated that built-up land increased by 24.6×103 km2, while cropland decreased by 4.9×103 km2, and the total area of woodland and grassland decreased by 16.4×103 km2. The spatial pattern of land-use changes in China during 2010-2015 was concordant with that of the period 2000-2010. Specially, new characteristics of land-use changes emerged in different regions of China in 2010-2015. The built-up land in eastern China expanded continually, and the total area of cropland decreased, both at decreasing rates. The rates of built-up land expansion and cropland shrinkage were accelerated in central China. The rates of built-up land expansion and cropland growth increased in western China, while the decreasing rate of woodland and grassland accelerated. In northeastern China, built-up land expansion slowed down continually, and cropland area increased slightly accompanied by the conversions between paddy land and dry land. Besides, woodland and grassland area decreased in northeastern China. The characteristics of land-use changes in eastern China were essentially consistent with the spatial governance and control requirements of the optimal development zones and key development zones according to the Major Function-oriented Zones Planning implemented during the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015). It was a serious challenge for the central government of China to effectively protect the reasonable layout of land use types dominated with the key ecological function zones and agricultural production zones in central and western China. Furthermore, the local governments should take effective measures to strengthen the management of territorial development in future.

Key words: land use change, spatio-temporal characteristics, remote sensing, Major Function-oriented Zones, China