地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (4): 755-770.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201804012

• 区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国城市舒适物评价指标体系构建与实证

马凌1,2,李丽梅3,朱竑1,2()   

  1. 1. 广州大学华南人文地理与城市发展研究中心,广州 510006
    2. 华南师范大学地理科学学院,广州 510006
    3. 华东师范大学工商管理学院,上海 200241
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-14 出版日期:2018-04-20 发布日期:2018-04-10
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社科青年基金项目(16YJC63008);国家自然科学基金重点项目(41630635);国家自然科学基金青年项目(71103207);National Natural Science Foundation of China for Young Scholars, No.71103207]

The construction of urban amenities index in China: An empirical research based on a statistical analysis of 26 Chinese major cities

MA Ling1,2,LI Limei3,ZHU Hong1,2()   

  1. 1. The Research Center for Human Geography and Urban Development in Southern China, Guangzhou 510006, China
    2. School of Geographical Science, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
    3. School of Business Administration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
  • Received:2017-04-14 Online:2018-04-20 Published:2018-04-10
  • Supported by:
    [Foundation: Humanities and Social Science Fund of Ministry of Education for Young scholars, No.16YJC63008; Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41630635

摘要:

随着城市经济向新知识经济转型,舒适物被认为是影响高端人才移入和城市经济增长的最重要因素。在西方研究基础上,基于中国国情,探索性地构建了中国舒适物系统的综合指标体系,其中包括自然、文化、商业、交通、卫生和社会等6个一级指标以及34个二级指标。结合中国26个主要人口聚居城市的舒适物指标数据,对不同城市的舒适物综合指数水平进行测评;同时对测评结果的差异进行了解释分析。研究发现:① 城市舒适物综合水平呈现出比较大的差距,北上广深等大城市明显高于中西部城市;进一步聚类分析表明,中国大城市的舒适物水平既存在差异,也存在舒适物发展上的共同特征;② 与西方城市人口普遍重视自然舒适物相反,商业舒适物和交通便利程度是影响中国城市舒适物总体水平的最重要因素,卫生服务设施、文化舒适物、商业舒适物与城市吸引力和宜居程度总体评价的相关性最高,这说明中国目前的经济增长模式仍以物质消费为主,而人才流动主要看重舒适物中的文化和消费设施发达程度、卫生医疗水平和交通便利程度,对自然舒适物和社会舒适物等“软”环境的重视不如西方国家;③ 中国城市舒适物结构呈现出比较复杂的状态,表现为发展不均衡的结构类型。城市舒适物评价指标体系构建紧扣舒适物概念和内涵,具有操作性和延伸性,一方面根据评价结果可以判断中国大城市舒适物水平的优劣与结构特征,另一方面评价结果可用于进一步分析其与城市经济、人才、企业等变量的关系,从而完善中国转型期城市发展和增长理论。

关键词: 城市舒适物, 指标体系, 结构, 综合指数, 中国城市

Abstract:

With the transformation of urban economy to new knowledge economy, urban amenities are considered as one of the most important factors influencing the flow of high-end talents and urban economic growth. Based on previous research of urban amenities at home and abroad, in addition to the consideration of the access to data, the article develops an indicator system for the assessment of urban amenities in China. This system includes 6 categories of urban amenities and 34 indicators. On the basis of the amenity indicator system, the research gives the evaluation on the development level of urban amenities of 26 major cities in China. It finds out that: (1) The four cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen rank top four in overall amenity level among the 26 cities; (2) Business amenity, transportation and speed are most important decisive factors that have impact on overall urban amenity level. Compared to Western developed countries, at the current stage Chinese big cities are paying more attention to the "built/material environment" of the city rather than "soft" ones, such as natural environment and social amenities; (3) Because there exists a gap in overall level of urban amenities among 26 Chinese major cities, there are both similarities and differences in their respective development model in terms of interior urban amenities composition and structure. The developed urban-amenity indicator system and its empirical research among the 26 Chinese major cities in this paper can help to understand the disparity in urban amenities development level in different cities. Urban amenity index can be further used for other urban development variables, such as economic development level and talent flow.

Key words: urban amenities, indicator system, index, structure, Chinese major cities