地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (4): 711-737.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201804010

• 区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京社会空间重构(2000-2010)

冯健1,钟奕纯1,2   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
    2. 北京大学城市规划与设计学院,深圳 518055
  • 收稿日期:2017-07-23 出版日期:2018-04-20 发布日期:2018-04-10
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671157)

Restructuring of social space in Beijing from 2000 to 2010

FENG Jian1,ZHONG Yichun1,2   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2. School of Urban Planning and Design, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, China
  • Received:2017-07-23 Online:2018-04-20 Published:2018-04-10
  • Supported by:
    [Foundation: National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41671157]

摘要:

基于2010年全国第六次人口普查数据,采用空间统计方法探讨了北京社会空间重构的特征。首先运用因子生态分析和空间自相方法探讨北京社会区类型及主因子,继而通过对有关空间分异的各类指标计算及统计分析,揭示北京社会空间分异演化趋势。结果表明:① 2000-2010年,北京产业结构调整及产业空间演化导致城市社会空间结构的相应变化,城市职业分化及职业空间分异明显,白领人口对新社会区的形成影响显著;② 一产、二产就业人口和从事生产运输业的人口空间分布更加集中,老年人口、外来人口、维族人口、文盲人口和农业人口这些指标的空间分布与居住人口空间匹配的一致性在变差,折射出包括就业人口的职住分离、外来人口的通勤、留守老人等在内的城市问题更加突出;③ 外来人口分布更加广泛且呈现出向远郊方向推移、蔓延的趋势,知识分子集中分布趋势愈加显著;④ 住房系统复杂程度增加,商品房分布总体上趋于均衡,但经济适用房空间分异增大。从城市社会空间结构演化机制上看,个体差异、家庭差异和地区差异是构成城市社会空间分异过程的3个层级,其背后是行政力量、市场力量和社会力量三者的推动,上述力量交互作用,推动城市社会空间结构持续演化。

关键词: 社会区, 社会空间结构, 空间分异, 空间重构, 北京

Abstract:

In this study, the authors focus on the characteristics of Beijing's socio-spatial restructuring, which were identified by spatial statistical methods based on the sixth national census. At first, factor analysis and spatial autocorrelation were used to identify the classification and main factors of social area in Beijing. Then the authors analyze socio-spatial differentiation and its evolution in Beijing through the indexes of spatial differentiation and the computing results. Results show that the main changes of social area and socio-spatial differentiation in Beijing between 2000 and 2010 include several aspects as follows: (1) The evolution of industrial structure and its spatial distribution have led to the corresponding change of socio-spatial structure in Beijing, such as occupational differentiation and the increase of its spatial differentiation. The spatial distribution of various types of occupational population reflects the evolution trend of industrial space in Beijing, such as shrinking agriculture, while urban manufacturing industry and logistics industry are more concentrated. (2) The elderly population, migrant population, Uygur population, illiterate population, and the agricultural population continue to follow the trend of the past, with gregariousness increasing and miscibility weakening. The matching consistency of the distribution of these indicators with the resident population has been weakening, which reflects that many urban problems are more prominent, such as the separation of work place and residence, commuting of the migrant population, the elderly or the empty nesters. (3) The number of migrants increased significantly, and its spatial distribution is more extensive, showing the development trend of the suburbs especially that of the outer suburbs. (4) The trend of the centralized distribution of intellectuals is becoming more and more obvious. Generally speaking, the level of education of the city has been improved, and as far as the distribution of education is concerned, there exist more differences. (5) The complexity of the housing system increased and commercial houses are widely distributed, but its spatial differentiation also increased. During the 10 years, the rapid development of real estate market lead to the substantial restructuring of spatial distribution of housing, and housing spatial differentiation increased significantly. (6) From the perspective of dynamic mechanism of urban social spatial structure and its evolution, individual differences, family differences and regional differences constitute the three levels of urban social differentiation, which present a specific urban spatial structure. The evolution of urban social-spatial structure results from intertwined effect of administrative forces, market ones and social ones. (7) Comparison of Beijing with other mega-cities in China, such as Shanghai and Guangzhou, shows that the social spatial structure of such cities has both coexistences and uniqueness.

Key words: social area, socio-spatial structure, spatial differentiation, spatial restructuring, Beijing