地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (3): 503-517.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201803009

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国山区农村土地利用转型解析

张佰林1,高江波2,高阳3,蔡为民1,张凤荣3   

  1. 1. 天津工业大学管理学院,天津 300387
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    3. 中国农业大学资源与环境学院,北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-03 出版日期:2018-03-20 发布日期:2018-03-23
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671098, 41501087, 41771560);国家重点基础研究发展计划(2015CB452702) [Foundation: National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41671098, No.41501087, No.41771560;National Key Basic Research Program of China, No.2015CB452702]

Land use transition of mountainous rural areas in China

ZHANG Bailin1,GAO Jiangbo2,GAO Yang3,CAI Weimin1,ZHANG Fengrong3   

  1. 1. School of Management, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. School of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
  • Received:2017-05-03 Online:2018-03-20 Published:2018-03-23

摘要:

山区土地开发及其导致的资源环境问题是农业社会人地关系紧张的体现,工业化、城镇化进程中劳动力转移减轻了山区农村土地的人为扰动,由此驱动土地利用发生转型,引发一系列自然和社会经济效应。按照“土地利用转型—驱动力—效应—响应”的分析框架,剖析中国山区农村土地利用转型的特征和规律,提出山区农村土地整治的响应措施。研究表明:① 山区农村土地利用转型体现出土地利用形态在长期变化过程中的趋势性转折,显性形态转型即由农业社会的耕地扩张和林地收缩演变为城镇化进程中的耕地收缩和林地恢复性增长,隐性形态转型即伴随上述过程发生的土地边际化及生态功能恢复;② 社会经济因素主导山区农村土地利用转型过程,劳动力转移引发土地人为扰动减轻是直接驱动力,务农机会成本上升、恶劣的生存环境等引发劳动力转移的因素是更为根本的驱动力;③ 山区农村土地利用转型降低了土地生态系统脆弱性并提高了其生态安全屏障功能,其社会经济效应应聚焦山区农村发展与农户生计安全层面,并亟需实证研究的支撑;④ 当前山区农村土地利用转型是自然恢复和生态优化的良性过程,有着经济社会发展的必然规律,山区农村土地整治要顺应其土地利用转型规律,目标导向从耕地数量增加转向生态环境保护与社会经济福祉协同提升。

关键词: 土地利用转型, 驱动力, 效应, 土地整治, 山区, 中国

Abstract:

In agricultural society, the cultivation of mountainous land was a representative of intensified contradiction between human and land which resulted in water loss and soil erosion. With the rapid urbanization and industrialization in poverty-stricken mountainous areas, the labor emigration relieves this contradiction significantly, and leads to land use transition, which results in a series of natural and socio-economic changes. This research built an analysis framework of "Land use transition - driving mechanism - effects - responses" in mountainous land use transition and then put forward the further direction of mountainous land reclamation. The results indicate that: (1) The tendency change of land use morphology was the core of rural land use transition in mountainous areas. The expansion of cropland, as well as the contraction of forest land in agricultural society, has changed to the abandonment of cropland and the expansion of forest land is the main characteristic of the dominant land use morphology transition. Land marginalization and land ecological functional recovery are the main characteristics of the recessive land use morphology transition in mountainous areas. (2) Socio-economic factors are the primary driving forces during the mountainous land use transition. Labor emigration is the direct driving forces. Meanwhile, the rising costs of farming opportunities, and the harsh living environment that lead to labor emigration are the root cause for mountainous land use transition. (3) The transition of rural land use in mountainous areas reduces the vulnerability of land ecosystem and improves its ecological security barrier function. The advantages and disadvantages of its socio-economic effects should focus on rural development of mountainous areas and the livelihood of farmers, and need to be supported by empirical and quantitative researches. (4) The transition of land use in rural areas is a benign process of natural restoration and ecological optimization. The rural land remediation in mountainous areas should conform to the law of land use transition, and the target orientation will shift from the increase of cultivated land to the synergies of ecological and environmental protection.

Key words: land use transition, driving force, effect, land reclamation, mountainous areas, China